There is no cure for ALS. However first drug RILUZOLE is used for the treatment. As this drug reduces the damage to motor neuron by decrease the release of glutamate. This drug does not reverse the damage , which occurs due to motor neuron degeneration. The main goals of treatment is to relieve symptoms and focus on improving the quality of life and make the patient mobile and comfortable. Medication mainly reduce the muscle cramps, fatigue and excess saliva. These drugs helps to control pain, spasticity, sleep disturbances in patients.
Physical therapy also helps patients to become independent and improve s quality of life. Aerobic exercises like walking, bicycling can strengthen the muscles which are unaffected and thus improves Cardio vascular health. With the help of stretching exercises Patient helps to reduce spasticity and contractures of muscles. With the use of certain devices like Braces, walkers or wheel chair patient remain mobile and conserve energy.
Speech therapist also helps to improve the difficulty of speaking. Some strategies should be adapted that makes the patient speak louder and clearer. Some aids like speech synthesizer and computer based communication is also helpful for the patients.
Nutritionist also plays an important role, as these patients find difficulty in eating and drinking. Nutritionist plan and prepare several and small meal sessions through out the day to provide enough calories. Those food should be avoided that are difficult to swallow. In severe cases when the patient is not able to take food, feeding tube is inserted into the stomach that put the food directly to stomach and reduces the risk of choking and pneumonia.
In some cases , due to weakness in muscles due to which breathing becomes difficult, therefore use of nocturnal ventilatory assistance ( intermittent positive pressure ventilation IPPV) or( bilateral positive airway pressure BIPAP) may be used to help breathing during sleep.
Home care or help with families provide emotional and financial support.