Treatment of cerebral palsy mainly depends on the symptoms of patient . Care of patients with Cerebral palsy is complicated, it requires different services . Main goals of the treatment is to reduce the complications of the disease. various treatment for cerebral palsy are as follows….
Rehabilitation includes physical therapy, Use of certain equipments. Physical therapy mainly focuses on Streching, physical exercises and other activities that develop muscle strength and flexibility of the patients. The main goal is to maximize the function and decrease the contracture . Certain specific skills like sitting, walking etc can be improved. Braces, splints , casts , walkers , customized wheel chairs should be used. Spasticity can be reduced to improve range of motion.
Occupational therapist also help these patients to learn certain physical skills so that they become as independent a possible.
Speech therapist help these patients to improve their communication skills. Due to poor tone or uncontrolled movements in the mouth or tongue patient is not able to speak properly . Therefore speech therapist help these patients to develop these muscles, improve tone and thus improve speech.
Opthalmologist can cure or improve visual problems. In some patients gastroesophageal re-flux( which is mainly caused by regurgitation of acid from stomach), feeding or swallowing is common. Gastroenterologist, nutritionist, or dietitian help these patients to improve their digestive system or feeding problems. Swallowing therapy improves patient so that they can eat or drink independently. In severe cases patients can be feed through feeding tube.
Most of patients have breathing problems due to the improper development of lungs. Therefore pulmonologist help these patients to cure their lung diseases.
The main goal of medication in cerebral patients is to reduce spasticity, abnormal movements and seizures . Common medications that mainly reduce spasticity and abnormal movements include Dopaminergic drugs that increases the level of dopamine and help to reduce the abnormal movements. Muscle relaxants are also used to relax the muscles directly . medications that are mainly used to control seizures include anti convulsants, benzodiazepines . These agents mainly stop the seizure activity or re occurrence of seizures.
Certain surgical methods are also used to treat cerebral palsy. They are as follows..
a) Dorsal Rhizotomy– During this procedure , few specific nerves are cut at the level of their roots where they mainly branch off the spinal cord. This mainly works to reduce spasticity and thus improves ability to sit or stand.
b) Implantation of baclofen pump— In this procedure drug baclofen is placed in the abdominal wall to deliver the continuous dose to the spastic group of muscles and thus helpful in reducing the spasticity.
c) Skeletal disorders like scoliosis or dislocation can be corrected by surgery. Spasticity can also be corrected by other surgical procedures like tenotomy( Division of tendon) or tendon -lengthening procedures
d) In some cases vagal nerve stimulation can be done in order to stimulates the vagal nerve in the neck and helpful to decrease epileptic disorders.
4) HOME TREATMENT–
Feed the patient with semi solid meals so that patient can eat properly. Specific utensils can be used so that it helps the patient to chew and swallow food easily. While using toilet patient feels difficulty due to stiff joints ,so modification in toilet seats can be helpful. Practice the patients for self grooming . Provide that clothes that can be easy to wear or remove. Drooling is another problem that cause skin irritation around the chin, mouth and chest. Application of lotions to these areas reduce the irritation.