Symptoms of stroke
Symptoms of the stroke typically start suddenly, over seconds to minutes,. The symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected. The more the area of brain affected, the more functions that are likely to be lost. Some forms of stroke can cause additional symptoms. For example, in intracranial hemorrhage, the affected area may compress other structures. Most forms of stroke are not associated with headache, apart from subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral venous thrombosis and occasionally intracerebral hemorrhage . If the area of the brain affected contains one of the these central nervous system pathways— spinothalamic tract corticospinal tract, and dorsal column (medial lemniscus, symptoms may include: 1) there will be hemeplegia and weakness of the muscles of face 2) there is feeling of numbness 3) there is decreased in sensation. 4) Firstly there is flaccidity (hypotonicity), replaced by spasticity (hypertonicity), followed by In most cases, the symptoms affect only one side of the body i.e. .unilateral . Depending on the part of the brain affected, the defect in the brain is usually on the opposite side of the body. Brain stem give rise to 12 cranial nerves, stroke affecting the brain stem and brain therefore can produce symptoms relating to defect in these cranial nerves: There is total or partial loss of smell, taste, hearing, or vision. Ptosis is common i.e.drooping of eyelid and weakness of ocular muscles There is decreased reflexes: swallow, pupil reactivity to light decreased sensation and muscle weakness of the face nystagmus and balance problem is common altered breathing and heart rate patient is notable to turn head to one side because of weakness in sternocleidomastoid muscle due to weakness in tongue muscles there is difficulty in protruding or move side If the cerebral cortex is involved following symptoms can be seen aphasia (difficulty with verbal expression, auditory comprehension, reading and/or writing Broca's or Wernicke's area is commonly involved) dysarthria (difficulty in speech) apraxia (altered voluntary movements) visual disturbances memory deficits due to the involvement of temporal lobe hemineglect due to the involvement of parietal lobe disorganized thinking, confusion, hypersexual gestures because there is involvement anosognosia (persistent denial of the existence of a, usually stroke-related, deficit) If the cerebellum is involved, the patient may have the following: difficulty in walking altered movement coordination vertigo and or disequilibrium Associated symptoms There is loss of consciousness, headache, and vomiting usually occurs more often in hemorrhagic stroke than in thrombosis because of the increased intracranial pressure from the leaking blood compressing the brain.