One of the most common form of cancer that develops in mesothelial cell lining of many organs and body cavities. This cancer typically attack the thin lining of lungs,abdomen,heart known as mesothelium. Sometime also affect the lining of testicals.In this condition the tissue cells in the lungs or in bronchial tubes divide rapidly and uncontrollably with abnormal characteristics.
RISK FACTORS OF MESOTHELIOMA
- Exposure to asbestos
- Asbestos related diseases
- Any type of lung disease
CAUSES OF MESOTHELIOMA
Mesothelioma is the rare form of cancer caused by an exposure to ASBESTOS.
WHAT IS ASBESTOS
Asbestos is a fibrous silicate i.e in its natural form ,A SOFT ROCK.In commercial form it looks like an attic insulation-i.e A BALL OF THICK FUZZ.
Because of its certain properties like :
HEAT AND CHEMICAL RESISTANT,making it useful for home construction material for insulation as fire-retardant.
Due to its long durability these fibres can be inhaled into the body and will remain for a long period of time and cause a rare form of cancer called MESOTHELIOMA.
HOW ASBESTOS LOOK LIKE
In raw form it look like rock fragment and when mixes with other compounds it is used to form building supplies like insulation,floor tiles,siding,ceiling.
TYPES OF ASBESTOS
Each mineral is divided into :SERPENTILE and AMPHIBOLE..
Serpentile include chrysotile type of asbestos having layered or curly fibers.
Amphibole include all those forms of asbestos having straight or chain like fibers like amosite,crocidolite.
In addition to this there are some other forms of asbestos- ANTHOPHYLITE,ACTINOLITE,TREMOLITE
1)AMOSITE : these are also called as BROWN ASBESTOS mainly brown or gray in colour having straight amosite fibers made up of iron and magnesium
2)CROCIDOLITE: these are also known to be BLUE ASBESTOS having blue straight fibers made up of sodium,iron magnesium silicate.this is the most lethal form.
3)TREMOLITE:mostly found in metamorphic rocks.creamy white or dark green in colour used as an ingradient in talcum powder.
4)ANTHOPHYLITE: having chain like appearance formed by breakdown of talc in ultramafic rock. not commonly used.
5)ACTINOLITE: also exist in metamorphic rocks mostly gray white or green in colour having no strong history of industrial or commercial use.
6)CHRYSOTILE:consist of mineral crystallized in serpentile pattern i.e crystals are formed in sheets.mostly white or greenish in colour. the curly fibers
are made up of magnesium silicate.
FROM PAST CENTURY,MILLIONS OF PEOPLE HAVE UNKNOWINGLY BEEN EXPOSED TO ASBESTOS OFTENLY CAUSING A VARIETY OF CANCERS CALLED
ASBESTOS CANCERS,IN ADDITION TO THIS LUNG CANCER IS ALSO CAUSED DUE TO THIS.
In this the tissue cells of lungs and respiratory organs begin to divide abnormally.it is mainly of 2 types:
small cell and non small cell.
SYMPTOMS OF LUNG CANCER
C)CHANGES IN COLOR,VOLUME AND CONSISTENCY OF SPUTUM
d)PRESENCE OF BLOOD IN SPUTUM,WEIGHT LOSS,DECREASE IN APPETITE
FORMS OF MESOTHELIOMA
THESE ARE EPITHELIAL,SARCOMATOID,BIPHASIC
TYPES OF MESOTHELIOMA
1)PLEURAL:this is the most common type occurs 75% and mainly affects the lining of lung pleura.
2)PERITONIAL:mainly affects abdominal peritoneum that covers abdominal cavity and abdominal organs.
3)PERICARDIAL:occurs in pericardial membrane that covers the heart.
4)TESTICULAR:affects the lining of testicle i.e tunica vaginalis.
SYMPTOMS OF MESOTHELIOMA
THE symptoms commonly occurs between 20-50 years of age.the common symptoms are :
a)SHORTNESS OF BREATH
f)UNEXPLAINED WEIGHT LOSS
Certain theories should be given in this case:
Firstly asbestos causes irritation and inflammation of mesothelial cells results in irreversible scarring,cellular damage and cancer.
Secondly asbestos causes production of free radicals and these molecules damage DNA cause cells to mutate and become cancerous.
DIAGNOSIS OF MESOTHELIOMA
This disease is very difficult to diagnose as it is very similar to other diseases and conditions.therefore first step is to take-
1) CHEST X-RAY
4) PET-SCANS to examine chest and abdomen
Biopsy confirms mesothelioma.in this there is removal of small amount of tissue to be examined.it can be done during a procedure called THORACOSCOPY.
TREATMENT OF MESOTHELIOMA
Surgery is most commonly used.It include pleurectomy.in this part of pleura is removed.extra pleural pneumenctomy.In this there is removal of lung,pleura,pericardium and good portion of diaphragm.Incase if patient have associated pleural effusion then pleurodesis i.e fluid can be drained should be done,in some cases radiation therapy i.e high energy beams of radiations is used to shrink tumors and also damage cancer cell DNA so that it will not be able to multiply.
Sometime radiation therapy should be given along with surgery and chemotherapy this is called as trimodality therapy.
INCASE OF CHEMOTHERAPY COMBINATION THERAPY SHOULD BE GIVEN.in this ALIMTA along with CISPLATIN should be given………….