TECHNOLOGY – It is the most dynamic force,shaping destiny of countries all over the world.some of the technologies innovations are wonders. one of such wonders is the transfer of technology.
During the past one decade,The New International Economic Order (NIEO) has been one of the most extensively discussed subject and transfer of technology is one of the aspects of that order.Development is now seen primarily in terms of economic development and scientific and technological development as a key to it and technology transfer consequently figures as a prominent factor in discussions of NIEO.
Technology is an essential mode for socio-economic development of a country.The less developed countries,who lack technology are totally depended on the MNC’s for borrowing the sophisticated and costly technology.
METHODS OF TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY
I. ACCORDING TO THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
It can be categorized into
a.)Simple direct sales of technology- It is the outright sale of embodied or disembodied technology by unrelated firs for prices which are more or less competitive.
EMBODIED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER refers to technology embodied in capital goods,skills of technicians technical literature.
b.)Process packaged sale of technology -It means a system where a complete industrial process or plant is supplied by machinery manufactures,independent engineering firms or final manufacturers of product.
c.)Project packaged sale of Technology – It is a method where technology is accompanied by other requirements for the commercial operations of the project.
II.ACCORDING TO THE NATURE OF THE INSTRUMENT USED
It is type of transfer of technology where the technology is sold in the form of equipment,designing of plant supervision,management,licenses,direct investments etc.
1.By the flow of books, journals and other published information.
2.By the movement of people between countries including immigration,return of emigrants,study visa and other travel.
3.By foreign investments and associated transfer of knowledge and equipment.
4.By import of machinery and equipment.
BASIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
1.Principle instruments of technology transfer .
2.Foreign exchange policies of developing countries.
Technology transfer is the process by which existing knowledge, facilities, or capabilities developed under federal research and development (R&D) funding are utilized to fulfill public and private needs.