What is Cancer

What is Cancer

Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by ‘out of control’ cell
growth.The word cancer means “CRAB”,thus reflecting the true character of
cancer since it sticks to the part stubbornly like a ‘CRAB’,therefore it is a
mass of tissue formed as a result of ABNORMAL,EXCESSIVE,UNCOORDINATED,AUTONOMO
US and PURPOSELESS proliferation of cells.
When tissue sucessfully spreads the other
parts of body and grows,destroying the healthy tissues it is said to be
metastasized and process is called “METASTASIS”.

WHAT CAUSES CANCER:

Cancer is ultimately growth of cells that uncontrollably grow.Program
med cell death is called as “APOPTOSIS”and when it breaks,cancer begins to
form.It also occurs when cell genes mutate make the cell unable to correct
DNA damage and unable to commit suicide.It is a result of mutations that
inhibit ‘ONCOGENE’ and ‘TUMOUR SUPRESSOR GENE FXN’leading to uncontrollable
cell growth.Cancer also occur as a result of ‘GENETIC PREDISPOSITION’that is
inherited from family members.There are class of substances that are
responsible for damaging DNA are known to be “CARCINOGENS”.When body get
exposed to these carcinogens free radicals are formed,these radicals damage
cells and affect their ability to fxn normally.

 

 

CLASSIFICATION OF CANCER

  cancer can be classified into five types.”CARCINOMAS”-these tumours mainly covers the internal and external parts likeLUNGS,BREAST and COLON.”SARCOMAS”-These are located in BONES,CARTILAGE,FAT,CONNECTIVE TISSUE and MUSCLES.”LYMPHOMAS”-These tumours begin from LYMPH NODES.”LEUKEMIAS”-These tumours are commonly found in BOMEMARROW.”ADENOMAS”-they arise from THYROID,PITUTARY GLAND,ADRENALGLAND and GLANDULAR GLAND.TREATMENT OF CANCER;        cancer can be treated by various methods.’SURGERY’is commonly performed.In this complete care should be done by surgical removal of cancer from the body part is to be done.’RADIO-THERAPY also plays an important role.In this high energy rays destroy the cancer cells.sometime ‘CHEMOTHERAPY’ give benefit to the patient in which we utilize chemicals that interfere cell division process.’IMMUNOTHERAPY’ aimsto get body immune system to fight the tumours.’HORMONE THERAPY’has been designed to alter hormone production in body so that cancer stop growing orkilled completely.’GENE THERAPY’is oftenly used.PREVENTION OF CANCER;          In order to prevent ORAL CANCER choosing not to smoke tobacco or drink alcohal.SKIN CANCER can be prevented by staying in shade,wear hat,sun glasses or using sun screens.Diet low in fats and rich in fresh fruits and vegetables should be taken.certain VACCINATIONS should be taken against viruses that will cause cancer.

TREATMENT OF CANCER:

Cancer can be treated by various methods.
‘SURGERY’is commonly performed.In this complete care should be
done by surgical removal of cancer from the body part is to be done.’RADIO-
THERAPY also plays an important role.In this high energy rays destroy the
cancer cells.sometime ‘CHEMOTHERAPY’ give benefit to the patient in which we
utilize chemicals that interfere cell division process.’IMMUNOTHERAPY’ aims
to get body immune system to fight the tumours.’HORMONE THERAPY’has been
designed to alter hormone production in body so that cancer stop growing or
killed completely.’GENE THERAPY’is oftenly used.

PREVENTION OF CANCER:

In order to prevent ORAL CANCER choosing not to smoke tobacco or
drink alcohol. SKIN CANCER can be prevented by staying in shade,wear hat,
sun glasses or using sun screens.Diet low in fats and rich in fresh fruits
and vegetables should be taken.certain VACCINATIONS should be taken against
viruses that will cause cancer.

SYMPTOMS OF CANCER:

It depends upon LOCATION and SIZE of tumour.
SKIN CANCER (MELANOMA) can be noticed by CHANGE IN WART or MOLE ON SKIN.
ORAL CANCER -WHITE PATCHES are found inside the mouth or WHITE SPOTS on tongue
IN LIVER-cancer interfere liver fxn and causes YELLOWING OF SKIN and EYES
called “JAUNDICE”.
COLON CANCER-CONSTIPATION,DIARROHEAand CHANGES IN STOOL SIZE are commonly seen
BLADDER OR PROSTATE CANCER-change in BLADDER FXN or FREQUENT or INFREQUENT
URINATION.
OTHER SYMPTOMS-FEVER.FATIQUE,EXCESSIVE SWEATING,ANAEMIA and UNEXPLAINED
WEIGHT LOSS.
LUNG CANCER-COUGHING,SHORTNESS OF BREATH and HOARSENESS are common.
BRAIN-when affects the brain it causes VERTIGO,HEADACHE and SEIZURES are seen.
IN addition to these ENLARGED LYMPH NODES are common and likely
to be present as earlier symptom.

RISK FACTORS OF CANCER:

AGE:It is the important risk factor that causes cancer.as age i
increases no. of possible cancer causing mutation in our DNA.
SEVERAL VIRUSES:HUMAN PAPILLOMA virus causes (CERVICAL CANCER),
HEPATITIS-B and C causes (LIVER CANCER),EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS cause (CHILDHOOD
CANCER),HIV (weakens immune system and decrease body ability to fight against
infection and increase chance of cancer).
None found.

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