what are the common diseases that cause jaundice
There are several uncommon conditions that give rise to jaundice. It mainly includes
a) increased or over-production of bilirubin
Certain conditions that elevate the level of bilirubin in the blood results in either mild or moderate jaundice that is difficult to detect.These conditions include:
1) rapid destruction of red blood cells ( hemolysis),
2) a defect in the formation of red blood cells that leads to the over-production of hemoglobin in the bone marrow ( ineffective erythropoiesis),
3) absorption of large amounts of hemoglobin when there has been much bleeding into tissue( from hematomas, collections of blood in the tissues)
b) Acute inflammation of the liver
sometimes, liver becomes inflamed that reduce the ability of the liver to conjugate (attach glucuronic acid to) and secrete bilirubin. It include acute viral hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, and Tylenol-induced liver toxicity.
c)Chronic liver diseases
Chronic inflammation of the liver can lead to scarring and cirrhosis, and can ultimately result in jaundice. Common examples include chronic hepatitis-B and C, alcoholic liver disease with cirrhosis, and autoimmune hepatitis
d) Infiltrative diseases of the liver
It refer to diseases in which the liver is filled with cells or substances that don’t belong there. The most common example would be metastatic cancer to the liver , usually from cancers within the abdomen.
e) Inflammation of the bile ducts
some diseases causing inflammation of the bile ducts, for example, primary biliary cirrhosis or sclerosing cholangitis and some drugs, that can stop the flow of bile and elimination of bilirubin and lead to jaundice.
f) Blockage of the bile ducts
The most common causes of blockage of the bile ducts are gallstones and pancreatic cancer. Less common causes include cancers of the liver and bile ducts.
g) Genetic disorders
There are several rare genetic disorders present from birth that give rise to jaundice. Crigler-Najjar syndrome is caused by a defect in the conjugation of bilirubin in the liver due to a reduction or absence of the enzyme responsible for conjugating the glucuronic acid to bilirubin.
The only common genetic disorder that may cause jaundice is Gilbert’s syndrome . It is caused by a mild reduction in the activity of the enzyme responsible for conjugating the glucuronic acid to bilirubin. The increase in bilirubin in the blood usually is mild and infrequently reaches levels that cause jaundice.
h) Developmental abnormalities of bile ducts
sometimes bile ducts do not develop normally and the flow of bile is interrupted. Jaundice frequently occurs. These diseases usually are present from birth . Cysts of the bile duct (choledochal cysts) are an example of such a developmental abnormality. Another example is Caroli’s disease.
i)Jaundice of pregnancy
there are some additional causes of jaundice that are unique to pregnancy.
1) Cholestasis of pregnancy. Cholestasis of pregnancy is an uncommon condition that occurs in pregnant women during the third trimester. The cholestasis is often accompanied by itching but infrequently causes jaundice.
2) Acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a very serious complication of pregnancy. It occurs late in pregnancy and results in failure of the liver. It can almost always be reversed by immediate delivery of the fetus. There is an increased risk of infant death. Jaundice is common, but not always present in AFLP. Treatment usually involves delivery of the fetus as soon as possible.