Symptoms of stroke
Symptoms of the stroke typically start suddenly, over seconds to minutes,. The symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected. The more the area of brain affected, the more functions that are likely to be lost. Some forms of stroke can cause additional symptoms. For example, in intracranial hemorrhage, the affected area may compress other structures. Most forms of stroke are not associated with headache, apart from subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral venous thrombosis and occasionally intracerebral hemorrhage . If the area of the brain affected contains one of the these central nervous system pathways— spinothalamic tract corticospinal tract, and dorsal column (medial lemniscus, symptoms may include: 1) there will be hemeplegia and weakness of the muscles of face 2) there is feeling of numbness 3) there is decreased in sensation. 4) Firstly there is flaccidity (hypotonicity), replaced by spasticity (hypertonicity), followed by In most cases, the symptoms affect only one side of the body i.e. .unilateral . Depending on the part of the brain affected, the defect in the brain is usually on the opposite side of the body. Brain stem give rise to 12 cranial nerves, stroke affecting the brain stem and brain therefore can produce symptoms relating to defect in these cranial nerves: There is total or partial loss of smell, taste, hearing, or vision. Ptosis is common i.e.drooping of eyelid and weakness of ocular muscles There is decreased reflexes: swallow, pupil reactivity to light decreased sensation and muscle weakness of the face nystagmus and balance problem is common altered breathing and heart rate patient is notable to turn head to one side because of weakness in sternocleidomastoid muscle due to weakness in tongue muscles there is difficulty in protruding or move side If the cerebral cortex is involved following symptoms can be seen aphasia (difficulty with verbal expression, auditory comprehension, reading and/or writing Broca's or Wernicke's area is commonly involved) dysarthria (difficulty in speech) apraxia (altered voluntary movements) visual disturbances memory deficits due to the involvement of temporal lobe hemineglect due to the involvement of parietal lobe disorganized thinking, confusion, hypersexual gestures because there is involvement anosognosia (persistent denial of the existence of a, usually stroke-related, deficit) If the cerebellum is involved, the patient may have the following: difficulty in walking altered movement coordination vertigo and or disequilibrium Associated symptoms There is loss of consciousness, headache, and vomiting usually occurs more often in hemorrhagic stroke than in thrombosis because of the increased intracranial pressure from the leaking blood compressing the brain.
Article publié pour la première fois le 01/10/2011
Heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia in which the body temperature is elevated dramatically. body temperature is greater than 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) due to environmental heat exposure with lack of thermo regulation. The most important measures to prevent heat strokes are to avoid becoming dehydrated and to avoid vigorous physical activities in hot and humid weather.Heat stroke is a medical emergency and can be fatal if not promptly and properly treated.
Symptoms and Sign of heat stroke
Symptoms of heat stroke can sometimes similar to those of heart attack or other conditions. Sometimes a person experiences symptoms of heat exhaustion before progressing to heat strokes. common symptoms include…
6) muscle cramps, aches
8) high body temperature
9) absence of sweating, hot red flushed dry skin
10) rapid pulse
11) difficulty in breathing
12) strange behavior
Infants and children are also at risk. In particular, infants or young children who are unattended in locked cars may suffer heat-related illness quickly, since the indoor temperature of a locked care can rise to dangerous levels even in moderate weather and infants died of heat stroke
Prevention of heat stroke
- Go to shady area, remove clothing, apply cool water to the skin.
- person is able to drink liquids, cool water or other cool beverages that do not contain alcohol or caffeine.
- Monitor body temperature with a thermometer and continue cooling efforts until the body temperature drops to 101 to 102 F (38.3 to 38.8 C).
- avoid vigorous physical activities in hot and humid weather.
- Take frequent breaks to hydrate yourself. Wear hats and light-colored, lightweight, loose clothes.
- Keep cars locked when not in use and never, ever, leave infants or children unattended in a locked car
- Treatment of heat stroke
- Treatment involves rapid mechanical cooling.The body temperature must be lowered immediately. The patient should be moved to a cool area (indoors, or at least in the shade) and clothing removed to promote heat loss . The person is bathed in cool water or a hypothermia vest can be applied. However, wrapping the patient in wet towels or clothes can actually act as insulation and increase the body temperature. Cold compresses to the foot , head, neck, and groin will help in cooling.. Fan or dehumidifying Air conditioners may be used to aid in evaporation of the water
Immersing a patient into a bathtub of cool (but not cold) water (immersion method) is a recognized method of cooling. This method requires the effort of 4-5 people and the patient should be monitored carefully during the treatment process. Immersion should be avoided for an unconscious patient, the patient’s head must be held above water
Hydration is of paramount importance in cooling the patient. This is achieved by drinking water (oral rehydration) Intravenous hydration (via a drip) is necessary if the patient is confused, unconscious, or unable to tolerate oral fluids.
Alcohol rubs will cause further dehydration and impairment of consciousness and should be avoided The patient’s heart rate and breathing should be monitored.
Article publié pour la première fois le 03/10/2011