Symptoms of stroke

Symptoms of stroke
Symptoms of the stroke typically start suddenly, over seconds to minutes,. The symptoms  depend on the area of the brain affected. The more the area of brain affected, the more  functions that are likely to be lost. Some forms of stroke can cause additional symptoms. For  example, in intracranial hemorrhage, the affected area may compress other structures. Most  forms of stroke are not associated with headache, apart from subarachnoid hemorrhage and  cerebral venous thrombosis and occasionally intracerebral hemorrhage  . If the area of the brain affected contains one of the  these central nervous system pathways— spinothalamic tract  corticospinal tract, and dorsal column (medial lemniscus,  symptoms may include:  1) there will be hemeplegia and weakness of the muscles of face  2) there is feeling of numbness  3) there is decreased in sensation.  4) Firstly there is flaccidity (hypotonicity), replaced by spasticity (hypertonicity), followed by  In most cases, the symptoms affect only one side of  the body i.e. .unilateral . Depending on the part of the brain affected, the defect in the brain  is usually on the opposite side of the body.  Brain stem give rise to 12 cranial nerves, stroke affecting the brain stem and  brain therefore can produce symptoms relating to defect in these cranial nerves:  There is total or partial loss of smell, taste, hearing, or vision.  Ptosis is common i.e.drooping of eyelid and weakness of ocular muscles  There is decreased reflexes: swallow, pupil reactivity to light  decreased sensation and muscle weakness of the face  nystagmus and balance problem is common  altered breathing and heart rate  patient is notable to turn head to one side because of weakness in  sternocleidomastoid muscle  due to weakness in tongue muscles there is difficulty in protruding or move side  If the cerebral cortex is involved following  symptoms can be seen  aphasia (difficulty with verbal expression, auditory comprehension, reading and/or  writing Broca's or Wernicke's area is commonly involved)  dysarthria (difficulty in speech)  apraxia (altered voluntary movements)  visual disturbances  memory deficits due to the involvement of temporal lobe  hemineglect due to the involvement of parietal lobe  disorganized thinking, confusion, hypersexual gestures because there is involvement  anosognosia (persistent denial of the existence of a, usually stroke-related, deficit)  If the cerebellum is involved, the patient may have the following:  difficulty in walking  altered movement coordination  vertigo and or disequilibrium   Associated symptoms  There is loss of consciousness, headache, and vomiting usually occurs more often in  hemorrhagic stroke than in thrombosis because of the increased intracranial pressure from  the leaking blood compressing the brain.

Article publié pour la première fois le 01/10/2011

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Symptoms of Heat stroke

Heat stroke is a form of  hyperthermia in which the body temperature is elevated dramatically.  body temperature is   greater than 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) due to environmental heat exposure with lack of  thermo regulation. The most important measures to prevent heat strokes are to avoid becoming dehydrated and to avoid vigorous physical activities in hot and humid weather.Heat stroke is a medical emergency and can be fatal if not promptly and properly treated.

 Symptoms and Sign of heat stroke

Symptoms of heat stroke can sometimes similar to those of  heart attack  or other conditions. Sometimes a person experiences symptoms of heat exhaustion before progressing to heat strokes. common symptoms include…

1) nausea

2) vomiting

3) fatigue

4) weakness

5) headache

6) muscle cramps, aches

7) dizziness

8) high body temperature

9) absence of sweating, hot red flushed dry skin

10) rapid pulse

11) difficulty in breathing

12) strange behavior

13) hallucinations

14) confusion

15) agitation

16) disorientation

17) seizure

18) coma

Infants and children are also at risk. In particular, infants or young children who are unattended in locked cars may suffer heat-related illness quickly, since the indoor temperature of a locked care can rise to dangerous levels even in moderate weather and infants  died of heat stroke

Prevention of heat stroke

  • Go to shady area, remove clothing, apply cool water to the skin.
  •  person is able to drink liquids, cool water or other cool beverages that do not contain alcohol or caffeine.
  • Monitor body temperature with a thermometer and continue cooling efforts until the body temperature drops to 101 to 102 F (38.3 to 38.8 C).
  • avoid vigorous physical activities in hot and humid weather.
  • Take frequent breaks to hydrate yourself. Wear hats and light-colored, lightweight, loose clothes.
  • Keep cars locked when not in use and never, ever, leave infants or children unattended in a locked car
  •                                                   Treatment of heat stroke
    •                                                                        Treatment involves rapid mechanical cooling.The body temperature must be lowered immediately. The patient should be moved to a cool area (indoors, or at least in the shade) and clothing removed to promote heat loss .   The person is bathed in cool water or a hypothermia vest can be applied. However, wrapping the patient in wet towels or clothes can actually act as insulation and increase the body temperature. Cold compresses to the foot , head, neck, and groin will help in cooling.. Fan or dehumidifying Air conditioners may be used to aid in evaporation of the water

      Immersing a patient into a bathtub of cool (but not cold) water (immersion method) is a recognized method of cooling. This method requires the effort of 4-5 people and the patient should be monitored carefully during the treatment process. Immersion should be avoided for an unconscious patient, the patient’s head must be held above water

      Hydration is of paramount importance in cooling the patient. This is achieved by drinking water (oral rehydration) Intravenous hydration (via a drip) is necessary if the patient is confused, unconscious, or unable to tolerate oral fluids.

      Alcohol rubs will cause further dehydration and impairment of consciousness and should be avoided The patient’s heart rate and breathing should be monitored.

       

Article publié pour la première fois le 03/10/2011

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