Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma
One of the most common form of cancer that develops in mesothelial cell lining of many organs and body cavities. This cancer typically attack the thin lining of lungs,abdomen,heart known as mesothelium. Sometime also affect the lining of testicals.In this condition the tissue cells in the lungs or in bronchial tubes divide rapidly and uncontrollably with abnormal characteristics.
RISK FACTORS OF MESOTHELIOMA
  • Exposure to asbestos
  • Smokers
  • Asbestos related diseases
  • Any type of lung disease
CAUSES OF MESOTHELIOMA
Mesothelioma is the rare form of cancer caused by an exposure to ASBESTOS.
WHAT IS ASBESTOS
Asbestos is a fibrous silicate i.e in its natural form ,A SOFT ROCK.In commercial form it looks like an attic insulation-i.e  A BALL OF THICK FUZZ.
Because of its certain properties like :
HEAT AND CHEMICAL RESISTANT,making it useful for home construction material for insulation as fire-retardant.
Due to its long durability these fibres can be inhaled into the body and will remain for a long period of time and cause a rare form of cancer called MESOTHELIOMA.
HOW ASBESTOS LOOK LIKE
In raw form it look like rock fragment and when mixes with other compounds it is used to form building supplies like  insulation,floor tiles,siding,ceiling.
TYPES OF ASBESTOS
Each mineral is divided into :SERPENTILE and AMPHIBOLE..
Serpentile include chrysotile type of asbestos having layered or curly fibers.
Amphibole include all those forms of asbestos having straight or chain like fibers like amosite,crocidolite.
In addition to this there are some other forms of asbestos- ANTHOPHYLITE,ACTINOLITE,TREMOLITE
1)AMOSITE : these are also called as BROWN ASBESTOS mainly brown or gray in colour having straight amosite fibers made up of iron and magnesium
2)CROCIDOLITE: these are also known to be  BLUE ASBESTOS having blue straight fibers made up of sodium,iron magnesium silicate.this is the most lethal form.
3)TREMOLITE:mostly found in metamorphic rocks.creamy white or dark green in colour used as an ingradient in talcum powder.
4)ANTHOPHYLITE: having chain like appearance formed by breakdown of talc in ultramafic rock. not commonly used.
5)ACTINOLITE: also exist in metamorphic rocks mostly gray white or green in colour having no strong history of industrial or commercial use.
6)CHRYSOTILE:consist of mineral crystallized in serpentile pattern i.e crystals are formed in sheets.mostly white or greenish in colour. the curly fibers
are made up of magnesium silicate.
FROM PAST CENTURY,MILLIONS OF PEOPLE HAVE UNKNOWINGLY BEEN EXPOSED TO ASBESTOS OFTENLY CAUSING A VARIETY OF CANCERS CALLED
ASBESTOS CANCERS,IN ADDITION TO THIS LUNG CANCER IS ALSO CAUSED DUE TO THIS.
LUNG CANCER
In this the tissue cells of lungs and respiratory organs begin to divide abnormally.it is mainly of 2 types:
small cell and non small cell.
SYMPTOMS OF LUNG CANCER
a)PERSISTANT COUGHING
b)CHEST PAIN
C)CHANGES IN COLOR,VOLUME AND CONSISTENCY OF SPUTUM
d)PRESENCE OF BLOOD IN SPUTUM,WEIGHT LOSS,DECREASE IN APPETITE
e)HEADACHE,FATIGUE
FORMS OF MESOTHELIOMA
THESE ARE EPITHELIAL,SARCOMATOID,BIPHASIC
TYPES OF MESOTHELIOMA
1)PLEURAL:this is the most common type occurs 75% and mainly affects the lining of lung pleura.
2)PERITONIAL:mainly affects abdominal peritoneum that covers abdominal cavity and abdominal organs.
3)PERICARDIAL:occurs in pericardial membrane that covers the heart.
4)TESTICULAR:affects the lining of testicle i.e tunica vaginalis.
SYMPTOMS OF MESOTHELIOMA
THE symptoms commonly occurs between 20-50 years of age.the common symptoms are :
a)SHORTNESS OF BREATH
b)CHEST PAIN
c)FATIGUE
d)PERSISTANT COUGHING
e)NIGHT SWEAT/FEVER
f)UNEXPLAINED WEIGHT LOSS
THEORIES
Certain theories should be given in this case:
Firstly asbestos causes irritation and inflammation of mesothelial cells results in irreversible scarring,cellular damage and cancer.
Secondly asbestos causes production of free radicals and these molecules damage DNA cause cells to mutate and become cancerous.
DIAGNOSIS OF MESOTHELIOMA
This disease is very difficult to diagnose as it is very similar to other diseases and conditions.therefore first step is to take-
1) CHEST X-RAY
2) MRI
3) CT-SCAN
4) PET-SCANS to examine chest and abdomen
5)BIOPSY
Biopsy confirms mesothelioma.in this there is removal of small amount of tissue to be examined.it can be done during a procedure called THORACOSCOPY.
TREATMENT OF MESOTHELIOMA
Surgery is most commonly used.It include pleurectomy.in this part of pleura is removed.extra pleural pneumenctomy.In this there is removal of lung,pleura,pericardium and good portion of diaphragm.Incase if patient have associated pleural effusion then pleurodesis i.e fluid can be drained should be done,in some cases radiation therapy i.e high energy beams of radiations is used to shrink tumors and also damage cancer cell DNA so that it will not be able to multiply.

Sometime radiation therapy should be given along with surgery and chemotherapy this is called as trimodality therapy.

INCASE OF CHEMOTHERAPY COMBINATION THERAPY SHOULD BE GIVEN.in this ALIMTA along with CISPLATIN should be given………….

Article publié pour la première fois le 30/09/2016

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Types of Mesothelioma

Various Types of Mesothelioma

Do you know about mesothelioma? This is a very dangerous disease and it is related to lungs. It is divided into two groups and these both groups are very important. The first group is benign mesothelioma and the second important group is malignant.

The symptoms of these two groups are very similar to each other and it is very difficult to distinguish between them. Only an expert and experienced doctor can distinguish between the symptoms of these two groups. Therefore we should always prefer only experienced and efficient doctor to avoid any further problem in future. The most important factor is that how to identify this disease? The identification of this disease is not easy because its symptoms are very complicated. So the common person cannot identify the symptoms of this disease.

The disease is related to the lungs so that you can identify this disease after the process of X-Ray scans of your lungs. Similarly there are many other symptoms of benign mesothelioma but the most important are the chest pain, cough and the fever is also most important indication of this disease. However the presence of the clubbed finger is also an important symptom of this disease. The clubbed finger always appears when the oxygen level of blood reduces or fall. The treatment of benign mesothelioma is easy than the malignant. In the treatment of the benign the tumors are removed surgically. Therefore it is reported by the doctors and surgeons that the treatment of the benign is easy than malignant.

The benign mesothelioma some time develops into the malignant form. Therefore the doctors advise to have X-Ray of lungs regularly so that you can identify the disease. This type of regular checkup is very necessary because it can prevent from many types of disorders. Therefore you should meet with doctor to have a complete medical checkup. The malignant mesothelioma is further classified into many types based upon the location of the tumor.
The most important is the pleural mesothelioma and it is related to cavity of lungs. This is the most common type of mesothelioma cancer and its symptom includes the chest pain and cough. Some time it creates the difficulty in the process of breathing. Similarly the fever is also the most important symptom of this disease. Similarly the other most important type of mesothelioma is the peritoneal mesothelioma.
This type of mesothelioma always appears in the stomach of the patient. This type of cancer usually originates from the abdomen and after some time it spreads to other parts. The symptoms include the pain in the abdomen and many others. In some cases the loss of appetite occurs due to this disease. Similarly some time the problem in breathing process also occurs. Another type of mesothelioma is the pericardial mesothelioma. It affects the cavity of heart and its symptoms include the pain, shortness of breath and many other types of symptoms. The treatment of different types of mesothelioma is different. The most important type of treatments includes the surgery, chemotherapy and the use of radiations.

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