Symptoms and diagnosis of cerebral palsy

symptoms of cerebral palsy

  SYMPTOMS OF CEREBRAL PALSY–

symptoms of cerebral palsy

 

Symptoms of cerebral palsy differs from person to person. These symptoms  ranges from mild to severe. It mainly involves one side or both sides of the body or involves both arms and the legs. These symptoms mainly seen before 2 years of age and sometimes it can be  seen as early as 3 months. most of the time parents mislead  about children delay in reaching or developmental stages like  rolling, crawling and sitting.

Symptoms of  spastic cerebral palsy include tightness in muscles, gait become abnormal and arms get tucked toward the sides, legs make ” SCISSORS”. Joint contractures are common i.e. joint becomes tight and do not open up all the way. There is weakness in the muscles or loss of movements mainly in the group of muscles. Abnormal movements like Twisting or writhing in hands, feet or legs get worsen during stressful conditions. Tremors are also common. There is loss of coordination.

Learning disabilities are common but intelligence is normal. Speech problem i.e. dysarthria is common. Hearing or visual problems can be felt. Seizures  are very common. Sometime adult patients  feel pain which is very difficult to manage. Usually there is difficulty in sucking or feeding in infants. Problem in swallowing or feeling of vomiting or constipation occurs. Irregular breathing occurs. Urinary continence is common. In some cases patient may drool also.

SIGNS AND TESTS–

There is mainly no medical test that confirms cerebral palsy. Diagnosis mainly involves medical history of both mother’s and father’s families. Check mother’s medical problems before and during pregnancy. Various blood and urine test may be checked. In order to rule out genetic syndrome analysis of child chromosome or DNA testing should be done. Other tests include–

ULTRASOUND OF THE BRAIN–

It can be done in order to detect various type of abnormalities. With ultrasound you can show bleeding in the brain or damage due to lack of oxygen to the brain.

CT SCAN OF BRAIN–

With this you can identify malformation , hemorrhages or certain abnormalities more clearer than the ultrasound.

MRI OF BRAIN–

With this test you can identify brain structures and their abnormalities.

ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY(EEG)–

With this test you can identify certain seizure disorders.

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (EMG)– 

It may be helpful in differentiating Cerebral palsy from other muscle or nerve disorders.

 

Article publié pour la première fois le 06/03/2013

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Causes and complication of cerebral palsy

  CAUSES OF CEREBRAL PALSY—

cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that mainly affects  body movements, balance and posture. In simple words Cerebral palsy  is also known as BRAIN PARALYSIS. It mainly affects the early childhood i.e. during infancy . In this disease , there is delay in the developmental milestones such as rolling , crawling, sitting and walking. There are many causes of  cerebral palsy.

Cerebral palsy  mainly begins in  prenatal period because of  events happened during pregnancy, when the fetus is developing inside the mother’s womb. Other important cause is premature birth. Children that mainly born prematurely can develop serious respiratory problem due to improper development of lungs . This can lead to  decreased oxygen to the brain that results in cerebral palsy. In some  premature infants there is development of some holes in the white matter of brain  called peri ventricular leuko malacia. The white matter is mainly responsible  for the normal processing of signals that are transmitted throughout the brain and from brain to the rest of the body.

Other cause include accidents of brain development, genetic disorder, stroke or blood clots. The other important causes of cerebral palsy involves birth asphyxia in which there is lack of oxygen to the brain  during delivery occurs. Less common factors like child abuse during infancy can also lead to brain damage and results in cerebral palsy.

 IMPORTANT COMPLICATIONS OF CEREBRAL PALSY—

There are many complications of cerebral palsy . Some of them are as follows..

1) Contracture–

Contracture mainly involves shortening of the muscle tissue due to tightening of muscle. Contractures reduces  bone growth and causes bones to bend results in joint deformities  or dislocation.

2) Malnutrition–

In cerebral palsy there is swallowing or feeding problems that leads to malnutrition .

3) Depression–

                                            Cerebral palsy patient challenges certain disabilities and that leads to social deprivation and patient feels depressed.

4) Early aging–

Early aging results due to stress on body or poor development of heart, lungs or other body organs.

5) Osteoarthritis–

There is abnormal alignment of joints due to spasticity and results in degenerative bone disease called as osteoarthritis.

6) Post impairment syndrome–

Due to stress on body , there is pain, fatigue or weakness in the body that alter everyday functions.

  Other less complications are Bowel obstruction, Pneumonia by choking, reduced communication skills or scoliosis.

Article publié pour la première fois le 06/03/2013

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Cerebral palsy stages and Risk factors..

stage of cp

   INTRODUCTION    

Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that mainly affects  body movements, balance and posture. In simple words Cerebral palsy  is also known as BRAIN PARALYSIS. It mainly affects the early childhood i.e. during infancy . In this disease , there is delay in the developmental milestones such as rolling , crawling, sitting and walking.

Cerebral palsy is mainly caused  because of damage in one or more parts of the brain that mainly controls the movements of the muscles  and its tone which  leads to the in coordination of the movements. Patient finds difficulty in  normal activities like balance, walking, speaking and swallowing.

stage of cp

 

STAGES OF CEREBRAL PALSY

Cerebral palsy has many types.The main  types of Cerebral palsy..

1) Spastic  Cerebral palsy

2) Dys kinetic  cerebral palsy

3) mixed cerebral palsy.

  Spastic cerebral palsy–

In spastic cerebral palsy there is increased in the muscle tone. Classification of this type mainly  depends on the body part affected. For example if both the legs are affected it is known as DIPLEGIA. In some cases there is involvement of one side of body then it is called as HEMIPLEGIA. When whole body involvement is there it is known as QUADRIPLEGIA.

   Dyskinetic cerebral palsy–

It mainly affects  coordination of movements. It is further divided into

a) Athetoid  cerebral palsy—– In this the person has uncontrolled movements and these movements can affect any part of the body including  face , mouth, or tongue.

b) Ataxic Cerebral palsy— It mainly affects  balance and coordination of the patient. In this deep perception is mainly affected. Gait of the person is improper. Patient generally finds difficulty in standing.

 Mixed Cerebral palsy–

The other type is mixed type which mainly involves combination of spastic and athetoid  cerebral palsy.

RISK FACTORS OF CEREBRAL PALSY–

Cerebral palsy mainly involves the brain and nervous system  functions. Most of these problem occurs during first  2 years of life or sometimes while the baby’s brain is still developing. There is involvement of many risk factors that can cause cerebral palsy

1) Premature infants have the highest risk  of developing cerebral palsy  because of under development of many organs of the body.

2) Infection of brain like Encephalitis ( inflammation , irritation or swelling of the brain) , meningitis ( bacterial infection of the membranes covering meninges and spinal cord) or herpes simplex infection.

3) Infection  to the mother during pregnancy due to rubella virus.

4) Head injury or bleeding in the brain.

5) RH factor in compatibility– Difference in the mother and fetus blood causes brain damage in fetus . Most of the times it is detects early and treated in women.

6) Hypoxia  lack of oxygen  reaching the brain before or after the birth.

7) Severe jaundice.

8) Complications during labor or delivery.

 

 

Article publié pour la première fois le 06/03/2013

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