Intracerebral hemorrhage

 Intracerebral hemorrhage

It  is a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding inside the skull) that occurs within the brain tissue itself. Most intracerebral hemorrhages occur in the basal ganglia, cerebral lobes, cerebellum, or pons. Intracerebral hemorrhage may also occur in other parts of the brain stem or in the midbrain

.   intra cerebral hemorrhage is  divided into..

1) intra-axial hemorrhage; that it occurs within the brain tissue rather than outside of it.there are mainly two types of intra cranial hemorrhage i.e. intra parenchymal hemorrhage and intravenous hemorrhages.

         2) extra-axial hemorrhage, such as  epidural, sub- dural and sub arachnoid hematomas which all occor within the skull but outside the brain tissue  


Alternative Names of hemorrhage

Intra cranial hemorrhage; Hemorrhage – intracerebral; Hypertensive hemorrhage; Hemorrhagic cerebro vascular  disease


causes of hemorrhage

Internal bleeding can occur in any part of the brain. Blood may build up in the brain tissues, or in the space between the brain and the membranes that cover it.The bleeding may only be in one hemisphere ( lobar intracerebral hemorrhage). Or it may occur in other brain structures, such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, pons, or cerebellum (deep  intracerebral hemorrhage)  causes are..

1) aneurysm or vascular malformation

2)  High blood pressure

3) amyloid angiopathy ( Protein deposits along blood vessels)

4) trauma to the brain

in some cases it may be due to unknown cause. Blood irritates the brain tissues, causing swelling (cerebral edema). It can collect into a mass called a hematoma. Either swelling or a hematoma will increase pressure on nearby brain tissues

Risk factors of hemorrhage

the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage include the following:

a) Blood and bleeding disorders

b) Decreased levels of blood platelets

c) disseminated intravascular coagulation

d) hypertension

e) diabeties

f) menopause

g) cigarette smoking

h)  drink alcohol

i) hemophillia

j) leukemia

k) sickle cell anemia

l) brain tumors

m) liver diseases

n) use of aspirin or anti coagulant medications.

Premature infants (born earlier than 35 weeks) will sometimes have bleeding into the fluid-filled spaces (ventricles) in the brain. This type of bleed is called intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH). This occurs in the first day or so of life and is usually not preventable