Dyslexia is a learning disability(certain learning problems like reading, writing, reasoning) that can hinder a person’s ability to read, write, spell and something speak. Dyslexia is most common disease found in children and persist through out the life. It is also referred as specific reading disability. The severity of dyslexia vary from mild to severe. sooner the disease is treated ,more favourable will be the outcome. children with dyslexia have difficulty in learning. It is also defined as a disorder in children in which he fails to attain the language skills of the reading, writing and spelling. Dyslexia primarily affected boys. Dyslexia is a localized problem, one involving the sounds, and not the meaning, of spoken language. Adult dyslexic may be able to read with good comprehension, but they tend to read more slowly than non- dyslexics and may perform more poorly at nonsense word reading and spelling
Dyslexia can undergo undetected during early decades of schooling. The child become frusturated by the difficulty in learning to read. The child may show signs of depression. Child may become unmotivated and disliking for school. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected normal intelligence.
Types/classification of dyslexia or what causes dyslexia
There are several types of dyslexia that affects child ability to spell as well as read. these are
1) trauma dyslexia
2) primary dyslexia
3) secondary or developmental dyslexia
It usually occurs after some form of brain trauma or injury to the area of brain that controls reading and writing. It is not commonly found in today’s population.
This type of dyslexia is a dysfunction of left side of hemisphere/ brain rather than damage. It does not change with age this type of dyslexia is passed through families(hereditary) and is more common in boys.
Secondary/ developmental dyslexia
This type of dyslexia is caused by hormonal development during the early stages of foetal development. Developmental dyslexia diminishes as the child matures and it is more common in boys.
Dyslexia may affect several other functions
Visual dyslexia is characterized by number and letter reversal and the inability to write symbols in correct sequence
Auditory dyslexia involves difficulty with sounds of letters or group of letters. The sounds perceived are jumbled or not heard correctly.
Dysgraphia refers to child’s difficulty in holding and controlling a pencil.
Signs and symptoms of dyslexia
The symptoms of dyslexia depends upon the severity of disease as well as the age of individual. Therefore symptoms can be classified as
a) preschool-aged children
b) early primary school children
c) older primary school children
pre school-aged children
the symptoms include
1)delay in speech
2)slow learning of new words
3)difficulty in rhyming words, as in nursery rhymes
4)low letter knowledge
5)letter reversal or mirror writing.
Early primary school children
1)difficulty in learning the alphabet or letter order
2)difficulty in identifying or generating rhyming words
3)difficulty segmenting words into individual words
4)difficulty in dictating written words
5)difficulty in associating sounds with the letters
Older primary school children
1)slow or inaccurate reading
2)very poor spelling
3)difficulty reading out loud, reading words in wrong order, skipping words and sometime saying a word similar to the another word
4) tendency to omit or add letters or words when reading and writing
Several learning disabilities often occur with dyslexia, these disabilities include
Dyscalculia– in this condition people understand very complex mathematical concepts and principles but difficulty in learning basic maths facts involving addition and subtraction.
Cluttering-a disorder involving both the rate and rhythm of speech resulting in impaired speech.
Treatment of dyslexia
There are many theories about successful treatment for dyslexia, there is no actual cure for it. The school will develop a plan with the parents to meet the child’s need. Treatment plan will focus on strengthening the child’s weaknesses. Techniques designed to help all the senses work together efficiently can also be used. Specific reading approaches that require a child to hear, see, say or multi sensory should be affective. Computers are powerful tools for these children and should be utilized as much as possible. Child should be taught compensation and coping skills.