Number of tests have been done to diagnose epilepsy. Sometime people have symptoms similar to seizure but they are non – epileptic events caused by other disorders. Therefore in order to make difference between these disorders and epilepsy close observation and certain tests should be done..
1) EEG( Elecrtoencephalogram)–
In this electrodes are placed on scalp and brain waves are detected. Through EEG , certain abnormalities in the brain can be detected by electrical activity. People with epilepsy have changes in their normal pattern of brain waves even when they are not experiencing seizure. EEG should be performed within 24 hrs of patients seizure. EEG can be performed while patient is sleeping. During EEG video monitoring can be done in order to find out the nature of person’s seizure. Trough EEG some other disorders like cardiac arrhythmia’s or narcolepsy can also be ruled out.
2) Brain Scans–
Brain scans can also be used in diagnosing epilepsy. It mainly include computed tomography(CT) , positron emission tomography(PET) and magnetic resonance imaging( MRI)
Through CT and MRI scans reveals the brain tumors , cysyt or other structural abnormalities PET can be used to monitor brain’s activity. SPECT( single photon emission computed tomography) is new kind of brain scan mainly used to locate seizure foci n brain.Sometimes magnetoencephalogram(MEG) can be done in order to detect magnetic signals generated by neurons in brain. MEG does not require electrodes and it detects signals deeper in the brain than EEG
3) Medical History–
Detail medical history , symptoms and duration of seizure is the best method to determine epilepsy and its kind. Patient who is suffering from seizure does not remember anything therefore care givers play vital role in evaluation.
4) BLOOD TESTS–
Blood tests can be done . These samples mostly detect metabolic or genetic disorders associated with seizures. With blood test some other problems like infections, anemia, diabetes, lead poisoning also trigger seizures can be detected.
5) DEVELOPMENTAL BEHAVIORAL OR NEUROLOGICAL TESTS–
Other tests can be done . These tests help to measure motor abilities, behavior capacity of an individual in order to determine how epilepsy affects person.