cholestatic jaundice

Cholestatic jaundice

Cholestatic jaundice is a condition in which there is a blockage in the flow of bile movement which then causes the overflow into the bloodstream. It is a condition where blockage of the flow of bile from t

he liver causes overspill of bile products into the blood and incomplete bile excretion from the body results.

Causes of cholestatic jaundice

There are several causes of Cholestatic jaundice, which are given as under

  • caroli’s disease ( congenital disorder characterized by multifocal, segmental dilatation of large intrahepatic bile ducts )
  • cystic fibrosis (an inherited disease of the mucus glands that affects many body systems causes progressive damage to the respiratory system and chronic digestive system problems)
  • choledocholithiasis (presence of at least one gallstone in the common bile duct)
  • hepatic adenoma (are uncommon benign epithelial liver tumors frequently located in the right hepatic lobe)
  • primary biliary cirrhosis ( irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the bile ducts of the liver)
  • sarcoidosis ( patches of inflamed cells — called granulomas , usually in the lungs and nearby lymph nodes occurs)
  • liver cancer
  • alveolar hydatid disease ( parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of a microscopic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis)
  • combined oral contraceptives
  • gold salts
  • diazepam
  • phenyl butazone
  • para- amino salicylic acid
  • liver metastasis
  • lathosterolosis ( defect of cholesterol biosynthesis due to the deficiency of the enzyme sterol-C5-desaturase)
  • dubin-johnson syndrome ( rare genetic disorder, in which a child must get a copy of the defective gene from both parents)
  • pencillamine
  • oxazepam
  • citrullinemia type 2
  • pyritinol
  • primary sclerosing cholangitis ( disease that leads to liver damage and, eventually, liver failure)
  • indomethacin
  • choledochal cyst
  • cholangitis
  • pancreatic cancer
  • lorazepam
  • gall bladder cancer
  • rifampicin
  • mirizzi syndrome ( common hepatic duct obstruction caused by an extrinsic compression from an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann’s pouch of the gallbladder)
  • klatskin tumor(bile duct bifurcation)

symptoms of cholestatic jaundice

symptoms mainly include

  • dark coloured urine
  • pale stools
  • Yellow colouration of skin and eyes
  • itchy skin
  • fever
  • chills
  • rigors
  • Episodic right upper abdominal pain
  • weight loss
  • diarrhoea
  • Steatorrhoea
  • fatty
  • Smelly stools that are difficult to flush away due to fat malabsorption
  • excessive bleeding
  • brusing
  • Enlarged liver (tender mass under right rib cage)
  • Enlarged spleen (tender mass under left side of rib cage)
  • night sweats
  • anorexia
  • malaise
  • Xanthelasma/xanthomata (fatty yellow nodules under eyes/on wrists and hands)
  • abdominal distention
  • ascitis
Treatment of cholestatic jaundice
  • Surgical removal of obstruction – generally laparascopic surgery or ERCP should be done
  • stop the drugs that is suspected to cause liver inflammation – e.g. steroids, sulfonylureas
  • antibiotics
  • liver transplantation