Posterior circulation stroke

posterior circulation stroke

a type of cerebral infarction affecting the  posterior circulation that supply one side of the brain.            Posterior circulation ischemia can range from brainstem symptoms, caused by reduced posterior circulation,

to the “locked-in syndrome,” which is caused by basilar artery or bilateral vertebral artery occlusion.

                                           The posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) are paired vessels,
 usually arising from the top of the basilar artery and curves laterally, posteriorly, and superiorly
 around the midbrain. The PCA  mainly supplies midbrain, subthalamic nucleus, basal nucleus, thalamus,
medial inferior temporal lobe, and occipital and occipitoparietal cortices. PCAs, via the posterior
 communicating arteries (PCOM), may become sources of collateral circulation for the middle
cerebral artery (MCA)

PCA is divided into P1 and P2 segments by the PCOM. Penetrating branches to the mesencephalon, subthalamic, basal structures, and thalamus arise primarily from the P1 segment and the PCOM. These penetrating arteries include the thalamogeniculate, splenial (posterior paricallosal artery), and lateral and medial posterior choroidal arteries.

The P2 segment  is divided into the posterior temporal artery and the internal occipital artery. The posterior temporal artery further divides into anterior, middle, posterior, and hippocampal branches. The internal occipital artery divides into calcarine and occipitoparietal branches.

                                                   Posterior Circulation Stroke Syndrome (POCS) refers to the symptoms of a patient who suffered from a posterior circulation infarct, but clinically no diagnosis is there. PCA stroke syndromes comprises of

    • Paramedian thalamic infarction
    • Visual field loss
    • Visual agnosia
    • Balint syndrome
    • Prosopagnosia
    • Palinopsia, micropsia, and macropsia
    • Disorders of reading
    • Disorders of color vision
    • Memory impairment
    • Motor dysfunction
                        etiologyof posterior circulation stroke  
                         Ischemic stroke occurs when a region of cerebral blood flow is suddenly limited.. Common  causes of PCA stroke include
cardiogenic embolization,
atheromatous disease of proximal vessels resulting in occlusion and/or artery-to-artery embolization,
dissection of proximal vessels resulting in occlusion and/or artery-to-artery embolization,
intrinsic PCA atheromatous disease.
                                                                     Less common etiologies include
 migrainous cerebral infarction (which preferentially affects the PCA distribution),
anterior circulation disease (when fetal PCA variant is present),
hypercoagulable disorders,
illicit substance use,

   signs and symptoms of posterior circulation stroke

Patients present with a wide variety of syndromes. Neurological dysfunction includes
 1) hemi or quadriparesis,
 2) cranial nerve deficits (III-XII),
 3) respiratory difficulty,
 4) altered sensorium,
 5) vertigo  6) ataxia.
        As the posterior circulation supplies the brainstem, cerebellum, and occipital cortex,
 the symptoms frequently involve the "5Ds": dizziness, diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and dystaxia.
                             Wallenberg Syndrome or Lateral Medullary Syndrome is characterized by
 sensory loss. Vertebral artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery occlusion causes
 nystagmus,vertigo, ataxia, hoarseness, dysphagia, Horner's Syndrome and loss of pain and temperature
sensation in the face on the same side of the lesion, and loss of pain and temperature on the opposite side of the body.               Basilar Syndrome (Anton Syndrome) is caused by occlusion of the basilar artery tip as it bifurcates into the posterior cerebral arteries therefore also affecting the occipital lobes and
deeper structures which results in somnolence, memory defects, confusion, mutism, visual hallucinations, and bilateral loss of vision with unawareness or denial of blindness, as well as vertical gaze paralysis and deviation of the eyes.
              Weber Syndrome is caused by vascular occlusion to the midbrain  which may be due to aneurysm
or tumor resulting in ipsilateral oculomotor palsy  with contralateral hemiplegia.                                Dejerine-Roussy Syndrome occurs due to ischemia or malignancy causing a
hemi sensory loss  on one side of the body, contralateral to the side of the lesion. Position sense is
affected more than any other sensory function, and deep sensory loss is  more than cutaneous sensory loss.
    The most dreaded posterior circulation infarction is the "Locked-In Syndrome," which is caused by basilar artery occlusion. The syndrome is characterized by a progression of symptoms leading to
quadriplegia with paralysis of horizontal gaze and bilateral facial and oropharyngeal palsy.  The patient
is awake and is only able to move his or her eyes vertically.Patients become stuporous or comatose as the
reticular activating system becomes involved.
                       Treatment of posterior circulation stroke
  anticoagulants of the heparin and warfarin types were being used to treat patients with myocardial
infarction and pulmonary embolism. management of hypertension, hyperglycemia, cerebral edema with
increased intracranial pressure, hemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction, infections aspiration,
 deep venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and other stroke-associated conditions.
 recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator( rtPA) should be  administered within 3 hours of stroke onset
 Extracranial bypass may be undertaken by connection of the occipital artery to the vertebral, superior cere
bellar, anterior ICA, or posterior ICA. The superficial temporal artery has also been used as a donor artery.
Shunting to the PCA may be accomplished by using veins or synthetic grafts.
                                      rehabilitation should begin early. Involvement of a speech  therapist may be required if alexia is present, with or without aphasia. The occupational therapist should be able to help in  teaching patients to turn to look in the blank visual hemifield. Recreational therapy helps patients with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke to adapt to visual deficits and facilitates a healthy affect (since depression is a common occurrence in stroke.Nutrition may need to be provided by alternative means, such as a nasogastric device or a percutaneous enteric gastrostomy tube in patients who have severe dysphagia. revascularization procedures in the posterior circulation is the prevention of vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke.

Article publié pour la première fois le 18/10/2011

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Stroke education

Stroke education  Blood brings oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. stroke occurs when blood flow is interrupted to part of the brain. Without blood, brain cells quickly begin to die. it is estimated that the brain is deprived of oxygen, 32,000 brain cells die in every second.. stroke effect people in different ways. Greater the area of brain affected ,greater will be the extent of functional disability. Stroke is the number one cause of serious permanent disability. Disabilities commonly caused by stroke .  1) decreased or loss of sensation 2)partial or complete paralysis (hemiplegia) 3) loss of bowel and bladder control 4)difficulty in walking and problems with coordination and balance (ataxia) 5)visual disturbances 6)sexual ability is decreased 7)loss of balance 8)loss or decreased muscle tone 9)spasticity(increase in muscle tone) 10)central pain syndrome (thalamic pain) 11) difficulty in speech and understanding language (aphasia) 12)shortened retention spans and difficulty learning new information 13)inability or difficulty with swallowing(dysphagia) 14) impaired ability to do calculations or to organize, reason, and analyze  15)loss of short-term memory 16) Behavioural changes are common, such as lack of concern about situations, impulsivity, inappropriateness, and depression 17)coma 18)death can also occur  Emotional disturbances are also common in stroke. It can cause lack of control emotions and an improper response This is called the pseudo bulbar affect (PBA). PBA is also known as emotional liability, which is a neurological disorder that causes sudden and unpredictable episodes of crying, laughing, or other emotional displays. Every 45 seconds someone suffers a stroke. Stroke kills nearly 160,000 people each year. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in this country. individuals who generally affected from stroke are under 65 years of age. men affected more as compared to women and blacks almost twice more often than whites. Stroke is the third- leading cause of serious, long-term disability. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel (artery) that supplies blood to the brain leaks, bursts or is blocked by a blood clot. Within an hour, the nerve cells in that area of the brain become damaged and may die. As a result, the part of the body controlled by the damaged area of the brain cannot work properly.  Stroke requires immediate treatment. The sooner treatment is received, the better the chances of survival. . Thrombolytic therapy is the use of drugs to break the clot that is the main cause of stroke. patients who come to hospital  within 3 hrs of the first sign of a stroke occur they have the possibility to receive Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA). There are many factors that determine whether or not a patient is able to receive thrombolytic therapy. Mostly it depends upon the amount of time between the onset of symptoms and presentation to the hospital.

Article publié pour la première fois le 01/10/2011

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Stroke in Dogs or Canine stroke

Stroke in Dogs or Canine stroke

A “stroke” is the sudden and severe attack  in which there is rupture of a blood vessel in the brain that deprives parts of the brain of their normal blood supply,results in  loss of consciousness, paralysis and perhaps other symptoms depending upon the site and extent of the brain damage.

In dogs, strokes occur when the normal blood supply to the brain has been compromised,When dog has a stroke, they don’t show signs such as paralyzed like human.At that time we  have to  help,  pay attention, right care and treatments for the dog  to get back to normal condition within a short period of time. If the treatment is delayed or if proper treatment is not provided, then it can surely lead to the death of the dog. If the dog is has had a stroke,we can immediately observe a change in the dog behavior. Bull dogs and pugs are more prone to stroke. Since, the respiratory pathway of these dogs is extremely narrow, they are prone to strokes.  Very old and very young dogs are also susceptible to strokes.

                           Types of  canine stroke 

                                          There are  mainly two types of canine stroke

              1) ischemic

               2) hemorrhagic

                                                  Ischemic stroke is caused by sudden stop of blood flow feed to the brain and hemorrhagic stroke when blood vessels in the brain start to  bleed  and blood actually starts pooling around and in the brain. Both of these types of stroke are very serious.

                        Causes of canine stroke

                                           Ischemic stroke occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted due to a blocked artery. the main causes of ischemic  stroke include

                   a) any type of Kidney, liver, heart or cushing’s disease



                   d) tumours

                  e) hypertension (High blood pressure )

                  f) Over or under active of thyroid

                                                                   Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when  blood vessel  get ruptured lead to bleed in the brain. The following conditions are the main causes:

                     1)  All types of diseases that can lead to high blood pressure such as kidney, heart, cushing’s, blood                               clotting diseases etc.

2) Head trauma

3) brain tumour

4) consumption of rat poison

5) inflammation of arteries(vasculitis)

6) Lung worm (angiostrongylosis)

7) Immune-mediated thrombo cytopenia

8) Abnormal blood vessel development in the brain

                                How stroke happens?

Strokes happen when blood flow get  disrupt in the brain. The disruption causes the nerves and neural pathways in the brain to stop working properly, which can create serious problems with coordination, vision and general behavior. If left untreated, a canine stroke will almost certainly result in death.


Article publié pour la première fois le 04/10/2011

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Physical Therapy Terminology

Understanding Physical Therapy Terminology

Physical therapy is a specialized medical field that involves many players including patients with physical injuries, government regulatory agencies, physical therapy associations and medical training institutions that train physical therapists. Physical therapy is not however restricted to enabling individuals with physical injuries to regain the use of their injured body parts; healthy individuals and in particular athletes receive physical therapy in order to keep fit and enhance their performance.

Like in other medical fields, physical therapists use varied terminologies in their practice and it is always good to have an understanding of any physical therapy terminology a therapist uses. Some of the most common terminologies include:

  • Angular kinematics – This refers to the study of angular motions within the body.
  • Active motion – This is the motion that results from the construction of body muscles.
  • Agonist – This refers to the principle muscle that establishes motion in the joints.
  • Arthrodial joint – This is one of the various non-axial joints that have their surfaces almost flat.
  • Arthrokinematics movement – This describes the movement between any joint surfaces within the body.
  • Aponeurosis – This refers to the dense tissues or membranes that connect body muscles to bones.
  • Acromioclavicular (AC) joint – This refers to the joint in the shoulder where the scapula and distal end meet.
  • Balance – Like in other areas, the term refers to body dynamics that enable for appropriate posture.
  • Biaxial joint – This is a term that refers to any joints in the body that allow movement in a perpendicular axis.
  • Composite impairment – This is a term that physical therapists use to refer to an impairment caused by direct and indirect effects of original cause.
  • Concentric contraction – Body muscles contract in different ways and this term specifically refers to one type of muscle contraction where the rate of movement is constant while the body is in motion.
  • Cancellous bone – This does not refer to bones but rather loose bone tissue consisting of branching trabeculae.
  • Diarthrosis – This refers to articular cavity between any two bones.
  • Displacement – This is the most common physical therapy terminology physical therapists use. Displacement refers to change in position of any body part.
  • Electromyogram (EMG) – This is a common test that physicians do recommend to establish a patient’s nerve function before referring a patient to a neurotherapist.
  • Fracture – This is the other physical therapy terminology that is mostly used by both physical therapists and others to refer to a break or crack in bones. The term is also used in physical therapy to refer to crack in cartilage.
  • Kinesiology – This is a physical therapy terminology that refers to the movement of human body.
  • Orthogonal axis – This refers to the axis where two planes cross at right angles.
  • Parallel fiber motion – This refers to body muscles whose fibers are in parallel to its axis from where the muscles obtain necessary force.
  • Peak torque – This describes the maximum extent a muscle can contract.

Understanding physical therapy terminology is at times beneficial to a patient as it informs a patient on the kind of injury sustained.


Article publié pour la première fois le 06/08/2011

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Guest bloggers wanted

Guest bloggers are wanted to contribute useful articles to this website.


Guest Bloggers Wanted – Guidelines:

It must be a useful and informative post.

The article you submit must be original and should not have been submitted anywhere else before.

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Guest Bloggers Needed – Ready To Submit?

Then email us at [email protected] with your article and your links. We will also market your article along with other posts.


Article publié pour la première fois le 16/10/2011

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when asbestos was banned

When Was Asbestos Banned

So that we can begin to identify when asbestos was banned we need to look at the history f the material in the construction industry. Asbestos related diseases were identified by scientists as early as in the 1920s. After this, workers started to file compensation cases in court which were resolved in secrecy and the cases came into light in the 1970s.

The health issues that asbestos presented to anyone who was exposed to the material for significant periods of time. The main reason that led to the banning of asbestos as a construction material was due to its close affiliation with asbestosis. This is a lung disease that was first noticed in textile workers. The disease scars the tissues in the lungs due to acid produced by the body’s attempt to dissolve the asbestos fibers in the lungs. The scarring with time becomes severe and the lungs can no longer function. The disease takes 10 to 20 years to develop and when asbestos was banned this contributed to the decision greatly. Another disease related to asbestos that affects the respiratory system is Mesothelioma.

It is a kind of cancer that affects the mesothelial lining in the lungs and chest cavity. It also affects the abdominal cavity and the sac surrounding the heart. This particular cancer has no association with smoking like lung cancer. The only factor that causes this type of cancer is asbestos fibers that contain carcinogens that are associated with lung cancer.

When asbestos was banned this was cited as a chief health risk to individuals who were exposed to asbestos fibers and the latency period of the disease was put between 20 to 50 years after which it becomes fully blown. After a patient is diagnosed with this terminal cancer, the life expectancy is 12 months after diagnosis. Asbestos is also associated with cancer of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, kidney and larynx cancer. This link between asbestos and a wide range of cancers led to its ban in the late 1970s after the U.S Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) declared that asbestos should not be used in wallboards, patching compounds and gas fireplaces because the use of asbestos in these places led to asbestos fibers being released in the environment. This did not constitute an actual ban and manufacturers voluntarily withdrew electric hair dryers that had asbestos in their components.

The actual time when asbestos was banned was July 12 1989 when the EPA issued a final banning on most products that contained asbestos in them. However, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans overturned this decision and allowed asbestos to be used in materials that had been manufactured prior to 1989. However, after the court’s decision, flooring felt, roll board and corrugated materials that had asbestos in their structure remained banned. This ban was also applied to products that did not historically contain asbestos which are referred to as ‘new uses’ of asbestos.  Regulations from the EPA require schools to inspect for damaged asbestos and eliminate them so that the fibers are not released into the atmosphere. These regulations are still in force today.

Article publié pour la première fois le 28/07/2013

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Role of Physiotherapy in treating stroke

Stroke may be defined as the abrupt onset of the neurological disorder that may occur due to some vascular cause. It occurs if an area of brain tissue is deprived of its blood

supply, causing brain cells to lose their supply of oxygen. Without oxygen, brain cells can become irreversibly damaged within minutes. Stroke is mainly caused by disruption of blood flow to the brain as a result of blockage or leakage in a blood vessel. The effects of stroke vary depending on the severity of the blockage or leakage.

Stroke commonly causes an arm , leg weakness, facial weakness and speech problems. This may lead to decreased mobility, balance problems and difficulty in performing everyday tasks. Unlike other cells in the body, if brain cells are irreversibly damaged then they are unable to heal themselves. The brain, however is capable of learning new tasks to compensate for the areas that have been damaged and physiotherapy thus encourages the learning and help the body relearn normal movement patterns.

Types of strokes

Stroke is mainly of two types

a) Ischemic stroke

b) Haemorrhagic stroke

Ischemic stroke

Ischemic stroke is usually caused by a blockage within an artery. This blockage results in decreased blood flow to an area of brain and therefore the brain cells in that area are damaged due to the lack of oxygen.

Haemorrhagic stroke

It is also called as “brain haemorrhage”. This occurs when blood vessels in the brain ruptures causing bleeding into the area of brain. This causes a build up of pressure and damages the delicate tissues of the brain. Blood flow to the neighbouring brain cells also reduced and these cells get damaged due to lack of oxygen and causes stroke.

Common physical limitations during stroke

the common physical limitations that occur during stroke are as follows;

a) stair climbing

b) bathing

c) walking

d) feeding

e) urinary/faecal incontinence

The brain is however, very adaptable i.e. capable of relearning new tasks and, with physiotherapy recovery can take place. Patients often have recovery in first few months, followed by slower recovery over the following years. With the correct physiotherapy input and advice patient have lots of potential to improve from the condition. Physiotherapy will assist in regaining as much movement and function as possible. Treatment often focuses on sitting, balance, standing, walking, using affected arm/hand, managing any change in the muscle tone , pain or stiffness. After stroke many people experience difficulties in performing tasks that were previously simple. Therefore physiotherapist will advise the patient the use of walking aids like crutches, sticks, splints and supports.

Manual handling training service should be done. This training involves teaching safe therapeutic handling and positioning techniques that will promote normal movement patterns and normal postural alignments of patients. Use of slings and wheel chair can also be taught.


Article publié pour la première fois le 13/01/2012

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Define physical therapy

How would you Define physical therapy?

If someone asked you to define physical therapy then what will be your answer? Well, you may have some kind of answer in your mind but unfortunately many people in our society don’t even know about physiotherapy, how and why it is done. If you are also from one of those people who don’t have sufficient knowledge about this therapy system then you are at the right place at the moment. In this article you will get information about physical therapy and how it is done. There are vast uses of this technique and it is used all over the world.

If someone asked to define physical therapy then I would present its definition in such way. Physical therapy is a therapeutic system in which a patient is treated in physical manner. There are different exercises and massages involved in physical therapy. If I say that almost every person in this world needs a physical therapy then I will not be wrong but the truth is, not all of the people in this world want to go thorough physical therapy. The main reason behind is not any kind of painful process but they don’t want to accept the change in society.

If someone doesn’t even know about the function of physical therapy then how can he define physical therapy? Well, there is no need to define a system nowadays because things are being generalized and people are living a casual life not an official life. However, it is very important for a person to know about this therapy system and how it is carried out. It is not easy to treat someone who has one or more physical parts totally impaired. Such patients that have impaired physical organs are normally treated with the help of this method.

A person may define physical therapy as; it is a system that treats physically disabled people and try to give them a new life. There are certain diseases and disabilities that can be treated very easily with the help of physical therapy but still there are different disabilities that require a surgery process or proper medication. For example; if an aged person is not able to move his hands properly then he can be treated with physical therapy. In this therapy, that old person will be taught to do different simple exercise that can help him to lead a good and healthy life.

It is not easy to define physical therapy because there are different processes involved in it. Only a person can understand about the therapeutic system once he enters into it. if you will not enter in to physical therapy system then you will not get a proper understanding about this system. However, all those people who have information about this therapeutic system are spending their lives with peace because they know that if there will be any physical problem with them then they can easily go for physical therapy and get rid of that problem in a few days, weeks or months.



Article publié pour la première fois le 06/08/2011

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Wrist Splints as good as a cast for Children

This post send by Lucie Crouch

Wrist fractures are the most common injuries in children, and frequent trips to the A&E department of the local hospital. The arm is treated with a cast which stays on for normally four to six weeks, then a follow up with the orthopaedic surgeon. But this has been the standard treatment for so long it has only recently been questioned with the use of an alternate remedy- thewrist splint.

A study randomised and controlled with 100 children aged five to twelve years old, half with wrist fractures (distal radius) were treated with splints and half treated with a cast. The splint group could only remove it to wash, and like the others had to keep it on for the rest of the trial duration. After six weeks, each participant was assessed by a physiotherapist who did not know which treatment they had received.

Dr. Kathy Boutis, Staff Physician and Associate Scientist at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) explains that:

\\\"Our results support the growing body of evidence that promote splinting as a suitable alternative to casting for specific distal radius fractures”.

As well as patient and parental satisfaction with the splint being much higher, 68% of children with casts say they’d much rather have had a splint, and only 12% would rather have the cast.

\\\"There were no differences in maintaining fracture stability, complications, and the splint was shown to be superior in terms of family preferences.

\\\"Inherent benefits of a pre-fabricated splint include easier hygiene, eliminating discomfort and anxiety associated with cast saw use, and easy application and removal. Thus, evidence from this research combined with the advantages of the splint advocate for this device in the treatment of these fracture cases\\\".

Another benefit of the splint is that it allows the wrist to move a little more, so muscle wastage and weakening is reduced so after treatment the patient is able to resume normal tasks at a higher rate.

Lucie writes on behalf ofPhysio-Med, leaders in physiotherapy equipment, with a wide range of stock for any business or home.

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Asbestos Ban

asbesScientists at the Collegium Ramazzini in Modena, Italy have repeated calls for a total ban on all asbestos across the globe. Writing in the International Journal of Environment and Health, the Collegium points out that just 52 nations have banned asbestos but a large number still use, import and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products.
Health problems attributed to asbestos include
Asbestosis – A lung disease first found in textile workers,asbestosis is a scarring of the lung tissue from an acid produced by the body’s attempt to dissolve the fibers. The scarring may eventually become so severe that the lungs can no longer function. The latency period (meaning the time it takes for the disease to develop) is often 10–20 years.
  • Mesothelioma
  • Cancer
  • Diffuse pleural thickening
At least 125 million people around the world are today exposed to asbestos through their work with about 20 to 40% of adult men reporting past occupations that may have exposed them to the risk of mesothelioma, asbestos, and lung cancer due to asbestos
Asbestos was banned from commercial use in the 1970’s after it was declared a hazardous air pollutant. Friable asbestos products were banned immediately while non-friable products would be phased out gradually while replacements for asbestos products were developed.In 1996, the EPA lifted the total ban on asbestos allowing it to be used to a limited degree in non-friable products.[Non friable products are those which cannot be reduced to powder by hand pressure]


Worldwide, 60 countries (including those in the European Union) have banned the use of asbestos, in whole or in part.Some examples follow.

A nationwide ban on importing and using all forms of asbestos took effect on 31 December 2003. Reflecting the ban, the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) revised asbestos-related material to promote a consistent approach to controlling exposure to workplace asbestos and to introduce best-practice health and safety measures for asbestos management, control and removal. The ban does not cover asbestos materials or products already in use at the time the ban was implemented.

Although Australia has only a third of the UK’s population, its asbestos disease fatalities approximate Britain’s of more than 3,000 people per year.

The São Paulo State law 12.684/07 prohibits the use of any product which utilizes asbestos, this legislation having been formally upheld by the Brazilian Supremo Tribunal Federal.

The only asbestos mines still operating in Canada are in the Province of Quebec. They were owned by American and British Corporations until the Quebec government expropriated (for example) Asbestos Corporation Limited in 1981 from its American parent, General Dynamics. In the early 1990s all remaining mines and mills were sold by Quebec to the private sector . Quebec exports 95 percent of its chrysotile production, mostly to Asian and other poor countries.In 1999 the government of Canada went before the World Trade Organization to challenge, unsuccessfully, the ban on asbestos in France.

France banned the use of asbestos in 1997, and the WTO upheld France’s right to the ban in 2000. In addition, France has called for a worldwide ban.

On 21 January 2011, Indian Supreme court refused to ban Asbestos in India. This judgment was passed down for case filed by a NGO on 2004. In spite of all health hazards, Asbestos continues to be used in India widely without any restriction.

Italy fully banned the use of asbestos in 1992 and set up a comprehensive plan for asbestos decontamination in industry and housing.

Japan did not fully ban asbestos until 2004, and so its government has been held responsible for related diseases.

In 1984 the import of raw amphibole (blue and brown) asbestos into New Zealand was banned. In 2002 the import of chrysotile (white) asbestos was banned.



Check this site for asbestos class action lawsuit



Article publié pour la première fois le 02/04/2013

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what are the common diseases that cause jaundice

           what are the common diseases that cause jaundice

There are several uncommon conditions that give rise to jaundice. It mainly includes

a) increased or over-production of bilirubin

Certain conditions that elevate the level of   bilirubin in the blood results in either mild or moderate jaundice that is difficult to detect.These conditions include:

1) rapid destruction of red blood cells ( hemolysis),

2) a defect in the formation of red blood cells that leads to the over-production of hemoglobin in the bone marrow ( ineffective erythropoiesis),

3) absorption of large amounts of hemoglobin when there has been much bleeding into tissue( from hematomas, collections of blood in the tissues)

b) Acute inflammation of the liver

sometimes, liver becomes inflamed that reduce the ability of the liver to conjugate (attach glucuronic acid to) and secrete bilirubin. It include acute viral hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, and Tylenol-induced liver toxicity.

   c)Chronic liver diseases

Chronic inflammation of the liver can lead to scarring and cirrhosis, and can ultimately result in jaundice. Common examples include chronic hepatitis-B and C, alcoholic liver disease with cirrhosis, and autoimmune hepatitis

   d) Infiltrative diseases of the liver

It refer to diseases in which the liver is filled with cells or substances that don’t belong there. The most common example would be metastatic cancer to the liver , usually from cancers within the abdomen.

    e) Inflammation of the bile ducts

some  diseases causing inflammation of the bile ducts, for example, primary biliary cirrhosis or sclerosing cholangitis and some drugs, that  can stop the flow of bile and elimination of bilirubin and lead to jaundice.

   f) Blockage of the bile ducts

The most common causes of blockage of the bile ducts are gallstones and pancreatic cancer. Less common causes include cancers of the liver and bile ducts.

g)  Genetic disorders

There are several rare genetic disorders present from birth that give rise to jaundice. Crigler-Najjar syndrome is caused by a defect in the conjugation of bilirubin in the liver due to a reduction or absence of the enzyme responsible for conjugating the glucuronic acid to bilirubin.
The only common genetic disorder that may cause jaundice is Gilbert’s syndrome . It is caused by a mild reduction in the activity of the enzyme responsible for conjugating the glucuronic acid to bilirubin. The increase in bilirubin in the blood usually is mild and infrequently reaches levels that cause jaundice.

    h) Developmental abnormalities of bile ducts

sometimes bile ducts do not develop normally and the flow of bile is interrupted. Jaundice frequently occurs. These diseases usually are present from birth . Cysts of the bile duct (choledochal cysts) are an example of such a developmental abnormality. Another example is Caroli’s disease.

    i)Jaundice of pregnancy

there are some additional causes of jaundice that are unique to pregnancy.

1) Cholestasis of pregnancy. Cholestasis of pregnancy is an uncommon condition that occurs in pregnant women during the third trimester. The cholestasis is often accompanied by itching but infrequently causes jaundice.

2) Acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a very serious complication of pregnancy. It occurs late in pregnancy and results in failure of the liver. It can almost always be reversed by immediate delivery of the fetus. There is an increased risk of infant death. Jaundice is common, but not always present in AFLP. Treatment usually involves delivery of the fetus as soon as possible.


Article publié pour la première fois le 14/11/2011

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Stroke complications

Stroke complications

A stroke cause temporary or permanent disabilities, depending on how long the brain suffers a lack of blood flow and which part of the brain was affected.

The most common complications are: • Brain edema  —  In this swelling of the brain  occurs after a stroke. • Seizures —  There is abnormal electrical activity in the brain causing convulsions. • Clinical depression — a treatable illness that often occurs with stroke and causes unwanted emotional and physical
 reactions to changes and losses. • Bedsores —  After stroke pressure ulcers occurs due to decreased ability to move and pressure on areas of the body
because of immobility.
• Limb contractures —  There is shortness of  muscles in an arm or leg  because of  reduuced range of motion or lack of
• Shoulder pain — common due to hemiplegia or exercise of an arm. This usually is caused when the affected arm hangs
 resulting on pulling of the arm on the shoulder.
• Deep venous thrombosis — This is because of  blood clots form in veins of the legs because of immobility  due to stroke. • Urinary tract infection and bladder control —  such as urgency and incontinence are common. • Pneumonia — causes breathing problems, a complication of many major illnesses.
   .   Paralysis or loss of muscle movement. Sometimes when there is  a lack of blood flow to the brain  person become paralyzed on one side of the body, or lose control of certain muscles, such as those on one side of the face
  • Difficulty talking or swallowing. A stroke may cause a person to have less control over the way the muscles in the mouth and throat move, which makes it difficult to talk, swallow or eat. A person may also have a hard time in speaking because a stroke has caused aphasia, a condition in which a person has difficulty expressing thoughts through language.
  • Memory loss or trouble with understanding. It’s common that people who’ve had a stroke has some memory loss. Others may find difficulty in making judgments, reasoning and understanding concepts. These complications may improve with rehabilitation therapies.
  • Pain. Some people who have a stroke may have pain, numbness or other strange sensations in parts of their bodies affected by stroke. For example, if a stroke causes lose feeling in left arm, you may develop an uncomfortable tingling sensation in that arm. It may also be sensitive to temperature changes, especially extreme cold. This is called central stroke pain or central pain syndrome (CPS). This complication generally develops several weeks after a stroke, and it may improve as more time passes. But because the pain is caused by a problem in the brain instead of a physical injury, there are few medications to treat CPS.
  • Changes in behavior and self-care. People who have a stroke may become more withdrawn and less social or more impulsive. They may lose the ability to care for themselves and may need a caretaker to help them .


Article publié pour la première fois le 22/10/2011

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Amitriptyline Side Effects in Women

Amitriptyline side effects vary from one person to another. The drug is basically used as a cure for depression. The drug is heavy in its influence and must only be consumed after seeking a doctor’s assurance. The drug must be used with great caution especially by pregnant women because it could have adverse effects on their health. Even women who are planning on pregnancy should be cautious. In case of the latter condition, the recommendation is only made by physicians if the negative effects do not outweigh the positive ones.

The common side effects of amitriptyline which are present in all women are the common symptoms of this drug. These include dry mouth, disbalance, seizures, convulsions and hallucinations, dizziness, fluctuating blood sugar levels, palpitations and tremors and many more.

However, the side effects that are associated with only women are that lactating mothers should orthodoxly avoid taking this drug because the chemicals present in it may pass into the mother’s milk and create complications for the child. Consumption of amitriptyline might also affect your periods because of the chemicals and reactions it has on the body. Women might have disturbed menstrual cycles. The drug is something serious and women should be fully aware of its effects before they plan to consume these. Apart from menstruation, the drug also results in decreased feeling of sexual pleasure sometimes no orgasm at all. Sexual displeasure in women is also characterized by swelling in women and decreased lubrication in the vagina. Weight gain is also unstoppable and sudden among women undergoing amitriptyline drug therapy. This abrupt gain in weight is actually followed by irregular menses.

Suicide is also one problem that may reach its peak at the time of the usage of this antidepressant drug amitriptyline. Women and especially young girls may feel prone to committing suicides. Suicidal feelings will mostly result due to extreme mood swings. Mood changes are quite abrupt in these women. The drug also induces sleeplessness in women and could also cause memory degeneration. Women who are used to consuming cigarettes are also susceptible to its various side effects. The nicotine and other cigarette chemicals cause a reduction in the level of blood after using this medication.

The remaining side effects of amitriptyline in women are irritability, increased sensitivity to sun, unusual sweating and uninformed bodily changes. Women are also more susceptible then men to be affected by amitriptyline and the changes that this drug causes in pregnant women could prove disastrous for their new born.

Women must consult the phycisian and have a detailed discussion with their doctors, gathering enough information as possible on the issue. It is advisable that they consult before concluding on their own. The drug is not a candy but has a strong impact on whole bodily functions. The drug attempts to cure depression and is powerful in its action so caution on the part of women is essential if they want to save themselves from the serious side effects of amitriptyline.

Article publié pour la première fois le 09/07/2011

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Asbestos Mine

Asbestos Mine
Asbestos was first mined in Vermont in 1899 on Belvidere Mountain.  Chrysotile deposits of ultramafic rock were quarried in the Mt. Belvidere mines located in Eden and Lowell, Vermont.
How asbestos is mined :
Asbestos is mined by the open pit method in most countries where the top layers of the sediment are removed and the minerals taken out. Layer after layer of rock will be blasted away until the asbestos is exposed and then harvested with machinery. Asbestos comes in different forms and is a waxy almost greasy mineral that is relatively soft. It is very brittle and easily fractures into many pieces that are stringy.
At the heart of the current controversy is the Mine Jeffrey, the world’s largest asbestos mine and the last of several exhausted asbestos pits clustered in Quebec’s Eastern Township area. From this region, for more than a century, has come almost 90 percent of the world’s commercial asbestos.
According to the United States Geological Survey statistics, asbestos production is led by Russia, which in the year 2000 alone mined 752,000 tons of asbestos. China was next with a little under half that total with Canada at 320,000 tons. Brazil came in fourth in terms of asbestos tonnage with 209,000 and Kazakhstan fifth at 179,000 tons. After Zimbabwe’s 152,000 tons asbestos production drops off significantly with countries, such as Greece, India, South Africa, and the United States mining less than 32,000 tons.
Most asbestos mines have been closed down. But wherever asbestos was extracted from the earth or processed in nearby plants, the fibers remain in dust, in the soil, blown by the wind, posing a hazard to local residents. All those sites need to be cleaned up and the asbestos safely disposed of.

Article publié pour la première fois le 02/04/2013

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young stroke

stroke in young adults

many of  adults in their 30s and 40s are being hospitalized for stroke,which  may be a sign that that rising rates of obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure among teenagers and young adults . Ischemic stroke occurs when a clot or narrowing of the arteries decreases or stop the blood supply to the brain.  A rise in obesity and other related health problems may  explain some of the increase risk of stroke. some  hypothesis seemed to be that in young people with stroke of unknown etiology, the use of a statin agent would have an effect on the risk for recurrent stroke. . Furthermore, patients who took a statin agent intermittently, or discontinuously, in the follow-up had an intermediate risk of having a stroke. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, lipid disorders and tobacco use were among the most common conditions found among young people for stroke.  strokes is related to atypical causes such as migraine, drug use, and carotid dissection.Although the primary causes of stroke — obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, and excess alcohol consumption — contribute as well, the atypical causes are more common in the younger age groups than in older individuals. In addition to the causes congenital heart disease, patent foramen ovale, and blood clotting abnormalities need to be considered in the younger population of stroke sufferers,Family history comes into play as well, and there is a history of cerebrovascular problems also.

symptoms of young stroke  – the common symptoms  of stroke that occur both in men and women are as under


Sudden weakness is a classic symptom of stroke. this  weakness can occur on either side of the body; affecting the arms, legs and face.  this type of weakness generally notice, when there is sudden difficulty in  moving  arms or legs, or  trouble grasping or holding onto objects.

walking  may become  difficult . In some cases, a facial droop will be noticeable. The mouth may sag on the affected side and smiling will be difficult. Women with stroke-induced weakness may lean toward her affected side when sitting and have trouble maintaining a seated position without assistance



patients  may experience a severe headache during the onset of stroke. stroke-induced headache can be sudden and have no apparent cause Blurred vision and dizziness may accompany  headache as well. Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel bursts inside the brain, causing blood to leak into brain tissue, and is often responsible for stroke-related headache.


 3)Difficulty in Breathing

          women can feel unique stroke symptoms compared to men, including difficulty in  breathing. A woman may notice that her chest feels heavy and it is harder to take a satisfactory breath. She may also experience chest pain in addition to pressure, nausea and heartburn.


stroke is mainly due to  interrupt blood flow to vital organs, including the brain. Confusion often results  when  brain receives less oxygen and struggles to function. Memory loss, inability to recall events, and confusion over person, place and time can accompany a stroke.


Loss of Coordination

  • Sudden dizziness, problems in  walking and general loss of coordination or balance are classic signs of a stroke.

  Speech Problems

  • There is  sudden onsets of  problem in  speaking or understanding speech  which is  common  in stroke

Visual Impairment

  • There may be Sudden vision problems, including double vision, seeing spots or flashing lights, or experiencing a blind spot, can be indicative of a stroke.



Article publié pour la première fois le 13/10/2011

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Breast stroke

A swimming stroke in which a person lies face down in the water and extends the arms in front of the head, then sweeps them both back laterally under the surface of the water.Also defined as stroke in which the arms are extended in front of the head and swept back on either side while the legs are drawn up beneath the body and thrust back together.  we also name it as, lazy breaststroke swimming style. We call it “paní Radová” breaststroke. In the olden days, the  wife of the town’s mayor used to be very respected individual, lazily strolling through the town with her nose held high. And this was translated into the swimming terms when someone swims very slow breaststroke with the head above the water at all times as if they are above anything else.  This type of breaststroke puts quite a lot of pressure on ones lower back since the swimmer needs to bend to keep the head above the water.

there are  four general principles for breast stroke

1) When a swimmer begins the stroke, they  “pulls” (sculls)themselves beyond the point where the hands began the stroke.

2) The hands and feet act like  wings creating lift and drag as they pull or kick through the water.

3) The weight of the water over the hands and the feet is important in keeping the hands and feet from slipping.

4) The hands and feet must be accelerated through the range of motion caring not to break the plane that they are sculling (pulling or kicking) on.                                                                              

                                                                           The swimmer should begin the arm stroke with arms extended at a slight angle down with the hands about 6 to 8 inches under the water. Hands should be side by side or slightly overlapping with the little finger pitched slightly up. The stroke begins with the little fingers leading the way and the wrists flexing outward. The arms sweep out and down. At the widest part of the stroke the fingers point down and the hands pitch in. The elbows are high with the hands below. On the insweep the hands accelerate to their fastest speed with the forearms and upper arms pressing in as one unit. The hands finish the stroke in a praying position and recover at the surface of the water. The hands should not be sculled past the shoulder.The head position is always in an up position with little up and down movement. Swimmers should look forward and slightly down during the arm recovery and kick portion of the stroke and above the water during the end of the insweep and breathing portion of the stroke.The first series of breaststroke drills focuses on proper kicking technique.  For the first drill, have swimmers insert a buoy between their knees before performing the breaststroke.  If the buoy slips or they are unable to hold it in place, wrap a large band around their knees.  The purpose of the drill is to keep the knees together which is an essential aspect of a successful breaststroke.  The Breaststroke is typically the most popular swim stroke among leisure swimmers and once perfected allows swimmers to enjoy swimming for a long time without tiring.

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Jaundice in Adults

Talking about jaundice, the question that one needs to ask is that what  is pathological jaundice? What is the link between jaundice in newborn babies and adults based on the bilirubin levels in the blood? In the newly born, jaundice is not harmful mostly and is classified as neonatal type. Regarding pathological jaundice, whether it is in newborns or adults, this is a condition that poses a risk to health and sometimes it may be harmful. In the neonatal jaundice, it takes few days for liver to adjust and work properly after birth. Until the liver adjusts, the bilirubin is not removed effectively, so, it builds up in the body and causes symptoms like yellowish tone of skin and yellow eyes.

If one suffers from the pathological jaundice, then this condition can follow through his entire life. In this condition, bilirubin level is not being handled correctly and it builds up in the body. This condition can result due to blood transfusion incompatibilities, viral infections, Hepatitis, blood diseases, genetic disorders, infections, blocked bile duct and drug and medications. The link between jaundice and every age group is the excessive level of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is pigment produced in body by liver when red blood cells are recycled. The normal level of the bilirubin in blood is one milligram per deciliter (1mg/dl) but if it exceeds this amount the one may see yellowing of skin and eyes. Unlike neonatal type of jaundice, pathological jaundice will take time to get better.

The link between neonatal type of jaundice and pathological jaundice is that there is something wrong with the body in handling the bilirubin and body cannot effectively remove it due to some disease or any underlying condition. Conditions like Hepatitis and damage to liver by virus are life threatening conditions. If the cause of jaundice occurs in childhood and cannot be corrected, then it follows the person in the adulthood as well.


Article publié pour la première fois le 08/08/2011

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Linings of the lung

Linings of the lung :
Lung Lining cancer is very different from a lung cancer. It happens in mesothelium- a thin membrane that covers many of the internal organs of the body.
The mesothelium of the lungs is called the Pleura. Lung Lining cancer is also sometimes called as mesothelioma after the area in which it occurs.
If the lung lining is localized and found only  in that place where it was originated , then this can be cured by surgical operations.  If it has spread to other parts of body , then it is really harmful and considered as malignant.
Majority of Lung Lining cancers are due to Asbestos exposure. These fibers gets into your body mainly from work places like mines , automobiles and construction.Asbestos  was used in old constructions because of its strength and after knowing the problems due to its exposure , people have stopped using it. But thi sis still present in old building and can be exposed to workers. Apart from work places , Asbestos  can also spread from skin or hair of family members.
Mesothelioma grows on the linings of the lung as a diffuse multi-site tumor with masses being spread on a wide area of the pleura. Some symptoms of Lung lining cancer are persistent cough, chest pain, recurring pneumonia.
Some other lung lining cancers are :
  • Pleurisy inflammation
  • Pneumothorax
  • Empyema
  • Pleural effusion
Lung lining cancers can be more bad if you are  smoking.
It is advisable to stop smoking if you are have Lung Lining cancer.

Linings of the lung :Lung Lining cancer Lung Lining cancer lung lining Mesothelioma

  • Pleurisy inflammation
  • Pneumothorax
  • Empyema
  • Pleural effusion

Article publié pour la première fois le 17/03/2013

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Jaundice in Pregnancy

jaundice in pregnancy

Jaundice in pregnancy

Jaundice in pregnancy, whilst relatively rare, has potentially serious consequences for maternal and fetal health. It can be caused by pregnancy or occur intercurrently. Causes of jaundice specific to pregnancy include:

  • pre- eclampsia associated with HELLP syndrome (= haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count).
  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy.
  • hypermesis gravidarum
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

Approximately 3-5% of pregnant women may have abnormal liver function tests.

Acute viral hepatitis 
                                                   This is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy with infections due to hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D and hepatitis E viruses. The incidence of hepatitis in pregnancy varies greatly around the world; in developed countries the incidence is around 0.1%, whilst in developing countries it can range from 3-20% or higher.
The course of most viral hepatitis infections is unaltered by pregnancy – the exception is hepatitis E , where pregnant women who contract the disease exhibit fatality rates of 10-20%.

Hepatitis A


  • Isolate the infected patient to prevent spread.
  • Symptomatic treatment includes maintenance of adequate hydration and nutrition.
  • Pregnant women exposed to the virus can be given immune globulin within 2 weeks of exposure, together with vaccine.
  • It is not clear if the virus is transmitted from mother to baby but, if the illness has occurred in the final month of pregnancy, the neonate should receive immune globulin.

Hepatitis B


  • This is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in pregnancy and can occur in acute, subclinical or chronic form.
  • The presence of HBeAg is associated with a very high risk of neonatal infection.
  • All women should now be offered hepatitis B screening as part of routine antenatal screening
  • Infants of HBsAg-positive women should receive hepatitis B immune globulin immunoprophylaxis at birth and hepatitis B vaccine at one week, one month and six months old. This regime reduces the incidence of hepatitis B vertical transmission to less than 3%.
  • The prevalence of neonatal infection depends on the time during gestation that maternal infection takes place: rare in the first trimester, 6% in the second trimester and 67% of those in the third trimester.

Hepatitis C


  • No therapy has been shown to influence the neonatal transmission of hepatitis C virus.
  • Interferon should not be used during pregnancy because of possible adverse effects on the fetus.

Hepatitis D

This develops as a co-infection with hepatitis B. When present, it increases the incidence of acute hepatic failure.

Hepatitis E

  • This is rare in the developed world but, in developing countries (where it is more common), it is responsible for a high level of fulminant hepatic failure and mortality in pregnant women.
  • In India it appears to be associated with a higher maternal mortality rate and worse obstetric and fetal outcomes compared with other causes of acute viral hepatitis in pregnancy.


This may affect as many as 6% of pregnant women but jaundice occurs only in about 1 in 20 of these women. Pregnancy alters bile composition and gallbladder emptying slows in the second trimester, increasing the risk of gallstones.

Individual risk factors are multiparity and previous gall bladder disease


Obstructive jaundice requires surgical intervention, usually via laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is an associated fetal loss of approximately 6%.

Chronic liver diseaseChronic liver disease in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of fetal loss:

  • In patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), ursodeoxycholic acid can be safely continued. Cholestasis may worsen during pregnancy with PBC.
  • Infants of patients with marked hyperbilirubinaemia during pregnancy may require exchange transfusion at birth.

Article publié pour la première fois le 08/08/2012

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When is asbestos dangerous

Your Health and Safety: When is asbestos dangerous?

Asbestos is a common product that is mostly used by home owners in floors, walls and even the ceiling. The question that continues to be worrying consumers is at what level of using asbestos will it be dangerous, this means that many people want to know when is asbestos dangerous. In order to know when is asbestos dangerous, we have to find out fast how the asbestos enter the body. One of the usual way for asbestos or its fibers to enter the human body is basically through breathing. This is to say at present stage the asbestos itself is not dangerous, it is only considered dangerous when it is emitting dust or fibers. This is so because, when it released in the air, it is ingested then with time it is trapped into the throat and nose’s mucus membrane. At that point it is easily removed, but when it enters the lungs or the digestive system, the answer to the question when is asbestos dangerous, will simply be when it enters the lung. As mentioned before, the answer to the question when is asbestos dangerous is when it is released into the atmosphere as fibers.

This includes asbestos sprayed on insulation pipes. Ceiling and floor tiles which contain asbestos will not discharge asbestos threads, save for if they are damaged in a certain way. For example if an asbestos floor tile is broken, it may end up releasing fibers into the air thus bringing the issue of when is asbestos dangerous. If however it remains undisturbed, then it may not pose a health risk. The fibers are not only released if the ceiling or floor tile is damaged but also as they age. When they are used for long, it makes it more possible for fibers to be emitted in to the atmosphere. Also when searching the answer to the question when is asbestos dangerous, you ought to be aware of the health effects that is accompanied by exposure to asbestos.  Through asbestos, you can get asbestosis which is a serious respiratory illness which is also cancerous. With this illness, the victim experiences shortness of breath and pain in the lungs whilst breathing. Also if it advances it may result to cardiac arrest and hence death. The answer to when is asbestos dangerous is when the victim realizes that as per now there is no effective cure for asbestos. For those who work with asbestos, they are more prone to be infected with this respiratory disease.



In also determining when is asbestos dangerous is determining how it affects the lungs. The asbestos is extremely dangerous when after affecting your lungs; you are unable to breath and may experience shortage in breath and/or pain when you are coughing. With this lung cancer, the victim ends up dying a long painful death. As noted above you do not have to suffer the aforementioned respiratory diseases to know when is asbestos dangerous. Ensure that you get your house tested for any traces of asbestos, after all prevention is better than cure.

Article publié pour la première fois le 24/10/2013

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Techniques deals with hemiplegia in stroke

Techniques  deal with hemiplegia in stroke

Hemiplegia is the term which is mainly  used to describe paralysis of one side of the body. The term can be broken down into “hemi” means “half,” and “plegia,” means paralysis.  The most common cause of hemiplegia is  stroke.   .  After stroke, the next most common cause of hemiplegia in adults is trauma. In hemiplegia one side of the body can become paralyzed or weak after a stroke. One sided paralysis or weakness occurs when a stroke affects the corticospinal tract of one side of the brain. The right side of the brain controls the motor function of the left side of the body. The left side of the brain controls the motor function of the right side of the body. Thus when one side of the brain is damaged, it causes only one side of the body to be affected. There are certain techniques which helps an hemiplegic patient to become mobile  and help to perform their functional activities. These include

a) range of motion

b) orthotics

c) slings

d) positioning

e) strengthening

                                                           Range of Motion – Moving the paralyzed or weak limb or extremity can help  to prevent stiffness and muscle contractures. Range of motion can be passive, active-assistive, or active depending if the extremity or limb can voluntarily produce any movement or if it has to be moved by an external factor such as a caregiver.

                                      Orthotics (Braces) –  sometimes braces may be prescribed  such as wrist and hand orthoses (WHO), elbow brace, or ankle foot orthoses (AFO)  which help  to maintain proper joint alignment and provide support to weak muscles, and prevent contractures.

                             Slings – There are various arm slings that help  to support the arm when subluxation  occurs. Subluxation commonly caused  when the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) has dropped out of the shoulder socket due to weakened ligaments and musculature.

               Positioning – It is important to position the weak arm or leg appropriately. When sitting, one can support the affected arm on a pillow, lapboard.  The leg during sitting should be positioned comfortably without too much rotation at the hip. Try to position the knee where it is facing forward and not out to the side or turned inward. The foot should be flat on the floor or footrest with no rolling of the ankle.

When lying on back, place a pillow by  side (parallel to your body) and place the weak arm out straight on the pillow. If there is edema in the hand,  we can use an extra pillow to elevate the hand to decrease swelling. When lying on  non-affected side, support the weak arm and leg on pillows in front of the body. If lying on the weak side, just make sure the affected shoulder is slightly forward and we are not lying directly on the shoulder joint.

Strengthening – Strengthening and active range of motion exercises can be done with stroke patients who  generaaly have  weakness . Patients with more severe paralysis may have some small individual movements that can be strengthened as well.

Article publié pour la première fois le 19/10/2011

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deal with a Stroke

What is a Stroke and how to deal with a Stroke ?
A ?tr?ke ?? a ?ever? ev?nt th?t ??u??s the blo?d to be blo?k?d from gett?ng t? an ?r?a ?f th? brain ?nd r??ult? ?n dam?ge to t

h?t regi?n of th? br?in. Wh?n a ?toke oc?urs ?nd the ?ym?t?m? l??t f?r 24 hours ?r le?? and it i? foll?w?d by a full r??overy ?f l??t fun?t??n? th?n th?t ?????de ?s c?lled tr?nsl?nt isch?mic ?tt??k or (TIA). Th?s? e????d?? u?u?lly la?t ?nl? ? f?w minut?? and ?re warning ?ign?.

The s?m?t?m? of a str?k? ?nclud? los? or im???rment ?f s?n??t??n, m?vem?nt, ?lurred ??ee?h, he?da?h??, ??nfu??on, d?zz?nes?, v??u?l ?r?bl?m?, difficult? sw?ll?wing, ?nd c?rta?n ?p??ific function? ?ontroll?d by th? ?r?? of th? br??n th?t ?? d?m?g?d, ?uch ?s th??? ment??n?d above.
W?th ? ?tr?k? 1/3 ?f the v??t?m? w?ll ?om?let?l? r???v?r, an?th?r 1/3 w?ll h?ve p?rti?l l??? ?f fun?t??n and ?till an?th?r 1/3 w?ll not survive ?t ?ll. You can r?c?v?r from ?arti?l p?r?l?si? – ?n m?ny ?a??? y?u can le?rn t? walk ?g??n, however los? ?f ?nt?lle?tu?l funct??n?ng ?? more d?ff??ult to r?cover fr?m.
A Strok? ha? be?n found to be th? m??t ??mm?n ??us? ?f n?ur?logic?l d?mag? ?n the ?ndustr??liz?d world. And the most c?mmon ?aus?? of strok?s ?r? a thickening of the lin?ng ?f ?rter???, c?ll?d arter????l?ro???, hy??rt?ns?on, ?l?o ?alled h?gh bl?od ?r???ur? or b?th. Other risk fa?tor? in?lud? ?m?k?ng, age, ?levated bl??d fat?, bl??d ?lat?let ?ti?k?nes? which s??m? t? a??ompan? ra???d l?v?ls ?f r?d c?ll?, ? r?c?nt h??rt ?tta?k, d??b?t??, nutr?ent d?f????n?ies, ?tri?l f?br?llati?n, ?nd ? hi?tor? of a damag?d h??rt valve.
T? ?r?t?ct y?urs?lf fr?m ? ?tr?k?, s?re?n f?r and ?ddre?s e??h of th??? i??ue? b?f?r? ??u ?re un?bl? to d? ?n?th?ng t? avo?d th? ?trok?.
It h?? ?l?o been found that tho?? str?ke ??t?ent? who rec?iv? hy?erbar?? ox?g?n th?r??y with?n th? f?rst 6 hours will ?ft?n ?m?r?v? c?n??d?r?bly, ??on afterw?rd?. And th?s c?n even hel? if ??u had ? ?troke ??ar? ?g? you ?an oft?n re???r ??m? ?f the d?m?ged ?ell?. Often the?? ??lls are not d??d ju?t dormant.
For reli?f of mu?cul?r ?ar?l???? ?r?mather?p? c?n b? hel?ful. R?s?m?r?, b?sil and l?v?nd?r e???ntial ?il? ?re su??ort?v? for thi? pur??s?. You ??n mes??ge th? ???n?l ??lumn and ??ral?z?d b?d? ?art? of th? strok? ??tient w?th on? qu?rt rubb?ng ?l??h?l conta?n?ng ?n oun?e ea?h of r?s?m?r?, bas?l ?nd l?vender.
Change ??ur d??t t? one th?t ?s natural, organic and whol? f??d?. Th? ?mph?s?s ?hould b? ?n ?nion?, v?g?tabl?s, garl??, un?ro?e?s?d f?ts and fre?h fru?t. Al?o foods that ?? ri?h ?n ?m?ga-3 f?tt? acid? ?u?h ?? fr?sh w?t?r fi?h, s??d? and r?w nut?, w?ld ??lm?n, wh?le grain?, fre?h v?g?t?bl??, br?c??l?, k?lp ?nd s?r?ut?.
Av??d ??mi-?olid fat?, d?ep-fr??d f??d?, and ?n?mal fat?, ?l?nt sourc?s of ??trog?n? l?ke ?oybeans and ??anut? and l?mit ??ur ?nt?ke ?f al??h?li? dr?nk?.
T? h?l? w?th im?r?ving lost c?r?ul?t?on t? the l?gs, ?rm?, hands and feet u?e th? herbs: h???o?, y?rr?w, ?ld?r flower? ?nd ro??m?r?. R???m?ry, d?mian? lav?nder, and S?b?r??n g?ns?ng ?an help t? n?urish and t? ?nhan?e th? n?rvou? ?ystem.
The ?p?l??ati?n ?f i??, w?t?r, ?t?am, ?nd hot ?nd ??ld temp?r?ture? ?? ?alled hydr?th?ra?? ?nd can b? u??d t? m?inta?n and hel? r?stor? h?alth. Th?s? tr??tm?nts ?n?lud? ste?m b?th?, s?tz b?th?, full b?dy ?mmers??n, ??un??, h?t and cold ??m?re??es and ??lon?c irrig?t??n.
Th? f?ll?w?ng su??l?m?nt? will al?o hel? w?th ?r?v?ntion ?nd r?c?v?r? fr?m ? ?tr?k? ?nd th?? ar?: v?t?m?n B6, v?tamin B-?om?l?x, v?t?m?n C, v?tam?n E, ?u?er?x?de dismut??? (SOD), ?nd omeg?-3 fatt? ?c?d?.

This is a guest post by Amrita Saxena. She has years of experience being a freelance and ghost writer. These days she writes about how to get rid of blackheads as well as blackhead remover.

Article publié pour la première fois le 26/10/2011

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Post stroke depression

Post-stroke depression (PSD)

It is considered as one of most frequent and important neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke..This condition can produce an adverse effect on cognitive functionand functional recovery and survival of the patient. post-stroke depression as “mood disorder commonly occur due to stroke having depressive features, major depressive-like episodes, manic features, or mixed features. Approximately one-third of stroke survivors experience major depression.
there are two types of depressive disorders associated with cerebral ischemia:major depression, which occurs in up to 25% of patients; and minor depression, as a depressed mood or loss of interest and at least two but fewer than four symptoms of major depression. Minor depression occurs in up to 30% of patients following
strokethe course of the depression generally after stroke is for 1-2 years, however, it was also noted that in few cases depression becomes chronic and may persist more than 3 years following stroke . On the other hand, minor depression appeared to be more variable, with both short term and long term depression occurring in these
patients .



what cause post stroke depression

the depletion of monoaminergic amines occurring after stroke play a role in post stroke-depression. There may be point that norepinephrinergic and serotonergic nuclei send projections to the frontal cortex and arc posteriorly,
running through the deep layers of the cortex, where they arborize and send terminal  projections into the superficial cortical layers. These norepinephrinergic and serotoninergic pathways are disrupted in basal ganglia and frontal lobe lesions – sites that are shown to be associated with post stroke depression.
Most of the patients donot have any history of depression before stroke Approximately 20 % will have a prior history.


Risk for Dependency
Most of the patients of the stroke who attain dependency are who become older or suffering from major health problems or severely depressed rather than those who are younger free from any health problem or less depressed , If
the.treatment and improvement of post-stroke depression does not directly influence recovery, it is extremely important for depression to be identified and treated, since it is associated with other health and social problems.”individuals who remain depressed three months after a stroke are more likely to have decreased functional
capabilities than those whose depression was successfully treated. Functional capabilities include getting dressed, feeding oneself, and accomplishing other tasks.

These capabilities increased significantly in those individuals who were treated for depression.”Post-stroke depression often impacts quality of life after stroke more than even functional impairments. Since it is treatable with common medications, cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise .Post stroke depression is commonly associated with higher levels of disability and low social support. Rehabilitation must not only focus on the physical recovery of post-stroke patients but also address mental health. Anxiety seems to get better over time, whereas untreated depression
remains an on-going burden to all persons concerned, patients and family. The type of rehabilitation therapies such as physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy not only treat the post stroke depression , their treatment is basically treated with the help of anti depressant medications.



Some of the symptoms of a stroke
stroke is a loss of blood supply to a region of the brain, caused usually
by the formation of a clot within an artery in the brain or by a blood clot, usually
from the heart, breaking off and traveling up the artery into the brain. These are
thromboembolic strokes.

There are also strokes due to bleeding inside the brain,
called hemorrhagic strokes. The most common place for a stroke to occur is in the
distribution of the middle cerebral artery. The middle cerebral artery supplies much
of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the brain as well as the subcorticol

The symptoms produced by middle cerebral artery blockage include
a loss of ability to move the arm or the leg on the opposite side of the body. So, if
the left side of the brain suffers a stroke, the right side of the body shows physical
weakness. Another common symptom of stroke is loss of sensation, that is, sensation
on the opposite side of the body. A feeling of numbness on the right side of the body
may be the result of a left middle cerebral artery infarction or blockage. Another
common symptom that occurs with stroke is loss of language ability. Language is
predominantly localized to one side of the brain, which we refer to as the dominant
hemisphere. In the great majority of patients, the dominant hemisphere is the left
hemisphere. If a stroke occurs in the dominant hemisphere in the frontal area of
the brain, the patient will lose the ability to produce language. If a stroke occurs in
the posterior portion of the dominant hemisphere where the temporal and parietal
lobes come together, the patient will lose the ability to comprehend language that is
spoken to them. If a patient loses the ability to comprehend language and to produce
language with a very large middle cerebral artery stroke, we refer to that as a global
aphasia. There are quite a number of other symptoms that may be produced by stroke,
including the ability to see on one side of the body, the ability to swallow or to move
the tongue in a normal way.

Some of the signs of depression
In patients who have had a stroke, the
symptoms of depression include a sad mood, loss of interest or enjoyment in usual
activities, loss of energy, difficulty with concentration, decreased appetite with
weight loss, sleep disturbance (particularly waking during the middle of the night
and having difficulty getting back to sleep), a feeling of self-blame or guilt, feelings
of hopelessness about the future, a slowing of the thought process with slowing of
movement and thinking, and thoughts of death or suicide. Check this site for vitamin b complex depression.


Article publié pour la première fois le 01/10/2011

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what is jaundice

Jaundice is the  yellowish colouring of the skin and sclerae (the white portion of the eyes) that is caused by high levels in blood of the chemical bilirubin( hyperbilirubinemia).

It  is not a disease but rather a sign that can occur due to manydiseases.  Jaundice can occur in babies, children, and adults.  The excess bilirubin  level causes the skin, eyes, and mucus membranes in the mouth to turn a yellowish color. Jaundice is often seen in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer . It may also indicate obstruction of the  biliary tract, for example by gallstones or pancreatic cancer , or less commonly  may be congenital  The color of the skin and sclerae vary depending on the level of bilirubin. When the bilirubin level is mildly elevated, they are yellowish and when the bilirubin level is high, they tend to be brown.

what causes jaundice

Jaundice  is mainly caused by an increase in the amount of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced from the breakdown of heme (blood), primarily from hemoglobin and red blood cells (RBCs).  When red blood cells get old, they are destroyed. Hemoglobin , the iron-containing chemical in red blood cells that carries oxygen, is released from the destroyed red blood cells after the iron it contains is removed. The chemical that remains in the blood after the iron is removed becomes bilirubin. liver  remove toxic chemicals or waste products from the blood, and bilirubin is a waste product. The liver removes bilirubin from the blood. After the bilirubin has entered the liver cells, the cells conjugate (attaching other chemicals, primarily glucuronic acid) to the bilirubin, and then secrete the bilirubinglucuronic acid complex into bile. The complex that is secreted in bile is called conjugated bilirubin. The conjugated bilirubin is eliminated in the feces, due to the presesnce of bilrubin in the feces it appears to be yellow in colour.

Jaundice occurs when there is

1)   large amount of  bilirubin is  being produced for the liver to remove from the blood . It commonly occurs in patients with  hemolytic anemia have an abnormally rapid rate of destruction of their red blood cells that releases large amounts of bilirubin into the blood

2)  There is  defect in the liver that prevents bilirubin from being removed from the blood, converted to bilirubin glucuronic acid (conjugated) or secreted in bile

3) There is  blockage of the bile ducts that decreases the flow of bile and bilirubin from the liver into the intestines. The bile ducts can be blocked by cancers gall stones, or inflammation of the bile ducts. The decreased conjugation, secretion, or flow of bile that can result in jaundice is referred to as cholestasis: however, cholestasis does not always result in jaundice.

Article publié pour la première fois le 15/09/2016

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Be Keen Of Your Health And Understand What Mesothelium is

The cancer of Mesothelium is a very rare but insistent type of cancer that is said to be caused by being exposed to asbestos.  Nearly around 2500-3500 people yearly are diagnosed with this type of cancer. This article is dedicated to letting you understand everything regarding Mesothelium.

First and foremost, there are various known factors for Mesothelium, including being exposed to asbestos and also exposure to a certain mineral known as zeolite. The risks are determined by how far you are exposed to the two.  The most general cause of Mesothelium as mentioned earlier on is the exposure to fibers. In this regard, asbestos is a viable term that refers to a set of minerals which occur all by themselves in the environment and are normally mined. In addition to that, it is important to know that asbestos consists of silicon, oxygen, hydrogen, and a positively charged ion that is found on some metals.  Also asbestos is widely known for its qualities such as being resistant to heat and fire and also its strength.

Before this mineral product was banned, it was popular in very many companies. Factories that were involved in asbestos exposure included leading aluminum factories; chemical factories; oil refineries; shipyards; power plants; steel mills; construction sites among others. Asbestos was also used in constructing of houses (for example in, in insulation, flooring and roofing materials).

It ought to be noted that due to its usage Mesothelium affected many people who were involved with asbestos. Now days, asbestos has been used to manufacture many household items, such as hair dryers and blow dryers. In fact, recent studies show that approximately 4000 product have been manufactured with asbestos. After looking at the uses of asbestos, it is now sufficient to low how Mesothelium comes about one thing to note is that asbestos becomes dangerous only when it is inhaled and this is usually after the asbestos has been damaged or worn out due to old age. It is normally at this stage that the fibers after being inhaled are implanted in the tissues and with continuance exposure it leads to Mesothelium.

When the fibers are implanted in to the tissues, they harden and as a result of this, air flow and blood flow to the lungs is reduced causing great pain. Once one is exposed to asbestos, the person will always have a high risk of developing Mesothelium. Once a person is infected with this kind, his or her chances of being completely cured are almost none. The severity of the Mesothelium depends on a number of factors such as to how much they were exposed to; the duration that one was exposed for; how often one was exposed; and lastly the kind of asbestos that one was exposed to. It naturally takes between fifteen to forty years after one is exposed for the disease to build up and to be diagnosed with Mesothelium.

It is important to note that secondary exposure can also happen. to be sure, have your lungs checked out by a physician.

Article publié pour la première fois le 28/07/2013

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Satellite Direct Review – A Wonderful Software

If you have tried to spend the time to read some Satellite Direct Reviews, you probably find that there are a lot of benefits that you can enjoy from using the Satellite Direct.

According to many of the Satellite Direct Reviews, the benefits of watching this type of TV would include the convenient setup. In the traditional way, you would usually need to spend a lot of time to set up the satellite dish and it would be quite troublesome indeed. But with the new thing, you would find that it is very easy for you to handle the setup and you can watch the TV very quickly after you have purchased the services.

Secondly, you can find that you would be able to watch many channels if you use the Satellite Direct software for watching the television programs. You would usually be able to watch the programs worldwide and it would be different from the programs that you can enjoy through the traditional way. In the traditional way, you might usually need to spend a lot of money but you might only be able to watch dozens of the programs. However, you can enjoy thousands of programs if you try to use the online software for watching the television programs.

You might usually find that there are some people who do not support the use of these software TV programs. It is because they would not watch television programs often. Of course, it would not be worthwhile for you to purchase the software if you do not watch television programs often. But for those people who frequently watch the television programs, using this kind of satellite tv programs would be very helpful and you should not ignore it. You would be able to save a lot of money especially when you find the discount periods.

Some of the websites hosting the satellite tv services are not reliable and the quality of the programs can be quite poor. Therefore, you certainly need to be aware of these websites and try your best to look for the relevant information related to the reliability of the websites. If you do not try to find the reliability of the websites, you would find that it is quite difficult for you to choose the right satellite tv site. Since you are going to pay for the services, you should have the responsibility to search carefully before you hire the services.

To conclude, you can find that the Satellite Direct TV is quite reliable and it would be one of the popular choices of people when they want to watch more television programs in the future. Therefore, you can try to find the information now and you would probably find that there are many benefits that you can enjoy. Therefore, you should search online and get a list of possible sites base on the programs that you really want to watch. Yes, you should choose some programs which can give you the right television shows that you love watching.

Article publié pour la première fois le 18/07/2011

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Whiplash Symptoms

symptoms whipSymptoms of whiplash aren’t quite immediate. They can even last for several years depending on how badly you have affected the nerve of your neck. All people aren’t the same some might have better immunity than the other, so it can’t be decided on how long the injury might last just based on other peoples experience.

Neck pain is one of the major and common symptoms of whiplash. If you are involved in an accident or had a big fall, you are more likely to be a victim of whiplash injuries.

There are many symptoms of whiplash, some of the major symptoms of whiplash are:

  • Neck/shoulder pain.
  • Lower back/spinal cord pain.
  • Unusual Fatigue.
  • Dizziness.
  • Vision problems.
  • Insomnia.
  • Loss of memory/ difficulty in concentrating.
  • Hearing problem.
  • Frequent headaches.
  • A feeling of numbness.


These symptoms might occur directly after the injury, but they are often not felt until days afterwards. Whiplash is usually restricted to the spinal cord and some of its areas. Necks and mid-backs are most likely to be affected. If these injuries are not treated on time then they might last for several long years.

Whiplashes often result in sudden violent moments involving the neck.  In the case of normal
whiplash injury there would be pain in the muscles, at the front end of the neck, movement of the neck could also help you identify Whiplash injuries. There is no doubt that these injuries don’t have any proven remedy to defend it.

In the case of accidents involving the neck or back it is better to approach a spinal therapist of a chiropractor wellness care. Hiring them quickly would certainly help you to get rid of this injury quickly and effectively.

Spiral therapy’s might help you in a long way to heal it off, as quickly as possible as this therapy gives relaxation to your muscles, at the back end of the body and you will obviously feel very comfortable and relaxed.  Any gentle massage between the vertebrae and the tissues surrounding it might help you to get rid of this injury very quickly.  This might generally take around a few weeks to be fully cured, but spinal therapy is always beneficial and would prevent the injury from spreading rapidly.

It’s not unusual to experience whiplash symptoms rather lately. In fact it is much more common thing to have indication of whiplash around a gap of 30 hours – 72 hours, after really falling into this injury. This might be because of the fact that human body cannot sense it as soon as it occurs and would certainly take more than 24 hours to generate a kind of irritation. It might also turn out to take more than weeks of time to identify such a kind of injury, it never happens in a flash. Irritation is certainly one of the best ways to identify this injury. Care must be taken to avoid worsening of this injury. Some kind of legal drugs can also be taken when whiplash occurs.


Article publié pour la première fois le 07/08/2012

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Diet For Pregnant Women With Jaundice

photo (17)

Causes Of Jaundice During Pregnancy

When a pregnant woman has jaundice, there are often a few underlying reasons why this is occurring. Among these are the following:

  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy that occurs during the second trimester, which is fatal if left undiagnosed and untreated.
  • Viral hepatitis causes the inflammation of the person’s liver. It can be caused by different kinds of viruses that bring about the different types of hepatitis.
    • Choledocholithiasis is a problem that is caused by gallstones in the person’s bile duct.
    • HELLP Syndrome is a rare but very dangerously fatal condition is associated with pre-eclampsia.

What to Do to Avoid and Cure Jaundice During Pregnancy

Mothers should know how to prevent jaundice during pregnancy. If they do find themselves with this problem, they should know the right diet for pregnant women with jaundice. Here are some tips:

  • Get yourself vaccinated for hepatitis before you get yourself pregnant.
  • Pregnant women with jaundice should avoid fatty food and other sources like butter, lard, and other similar fatty substances.
    • Avoid spicy foods, too much sweets, pickles, alcohol, coffee, and salted meats.
    • Adequate care and precaution should be taken by pregnant women with jaundice to avoid foetal loss and worsening of the condition.
    • Seek immediate attention once jaundice is evident.
    A liquid diet consists mostly of fruit juices, vegetable soups and protein shakes. Rest is also an important part of being on the liquid diet. Pregnant women who have been diagnosed with jaundice are advised to sleep as much as they can throughout the day. Sleep helps in the development of the baby. Pressure and stress should be avoided as much as possible. Yoga and meditation can help immensely. Always speak to your doctor before making drastic changes to your diet and exercise routine, especially during pregnancy

Article publié pour la première fois le 08/08/2012

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Everyday asbestos uses

Everyday’s asbestos uses

Asbestos is a kind mineral that is made up of six known compounds. These compounds include silicon, hydrogen, oxygen and magnesium. It also consists of other elements that give the asbestos its resistance to flame property. Asbestos use dates back to thousands of years when it was used to create fire proof materials and building materials as well. Despite it being known to cause disease such as lung cancer, asbestosis and cardiac failure, it is still being used by many people.

The major asbestos use is in cement products. More and more people are mixing asbestos with cement to give it durability and strength. This practice also dates back to many years ago when the early settlers used it to strengthen materials. After the compound was mixed, they were then used in joint along chimneys, windows and among others. It was also used to encircle boilers and water tanks so as to retain heat or cold. Now days, floor tiles and ceiling tiles that have been added asbestos are being manufactured despite the great health risk that it posses.

The second asbestos use is in insulation materials. Materials that contain asbestos were used for insulation as early as 1970. This included insulation in pipes and furnace, steam water pipes insulation and hot water insulation. It was also used in the insulation of the attic. The whole purpose of insulation is attributed to the fire proof resistant quality of asbestos. This means that it is able to retain heat or cold. Some kind of insulation of vermiculite has also deemed to contain asbestos.

The third kind of asbestos use is to be found in motor vehicle products. Asbestos is found in a wide range of motor vehicle products; they include brake pedal, clutches, gasket materials, heat seals, valve rings and many more. Being a very reliable addition to insulator makes asbestos a favorite to many when it comes to using it in hand brake and lining for the clutch. As a result of this, many brake and clutch repair experts are deemed to be at high risk for asbestosis and mesothelioma due to being exposed to asbestos exposure.

The fourth asbestos use is found in adhesive products. Adhesives that have been mixed with asbestos were used in a variety of ways in the early 90s. Such asbestos induced adhesives were used during the application of carpets, ceiling tiles and floor tiles. Many health experts advice that if you have asbestos floors, then you should remove it as long exposure to it poses a huge risk to your health. They also advice that you should not remove the asbestos file on your own as you may end up destroying it and crumbling it; and that due to this fact you have a high chance of inhaling the asbestos in to your lungs.

Last but not least is that asbestos use is applied in the tobacco industry. During the 80s, studies show that asbestos was used to manufacture tobacco products so as to make it burn slowly.

Article publié pour la première fois le 28/07/2013

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Asbestos Meaning

Asbestos Meaning
The term asbestos is traceable to Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder’s manuscript Natural History, and his use of the term asbestinon, meaning “unquenchable”.
Asbestos is a  mineral fiber that can pollute air or water and cause cancer or asbestosis when inhaled. EPA has banned or severely restricted its use in manufacturing and construction.
Asbestos properties:
  • Asbestos is  fibrous amphibole
  • Asbestos is extremely resistant to fire and heat
  • Asbestos strands can be extracted from the rock and woven and spun much like cotton or other conventional fabrics.
  • Asbestos is an outstanding insulator
  • Asbestos has high tensile strength
  • Asbestos is chemically stable
  • Asbestosis  silicate-mineral fiber that becomes brittle (‘friable’) with age
Asbestos Uses:
  • Asbestos is used for making fireproof articles
  • Asbestos is used in variety of household items.
  • Asbestos is used in industrial applications from ancient times
Asbestos health hazards
  • Asbestos inhaling fibers can cause asbestosis or lung cancer (mesothelioma).
  • Asbestos can pollutes air and water as extremely fine particles that can cause serious illnesses
  • Asbestos causes respiratory disease.

Article publié pour la première fois le 22/07/2013

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neonatal jaundice

Neonatal jaundice

Jaundice in babies usually occurs because of a normal increase in red blood cell breakdown and the fact that their immature livers are not efficient at removing bilirubin from the bloodstream.Most jaun

dice in newborn babies is a normal event and is not serious. In most cases, this jaundice will disappear after a few days, often without any special treatment. Jaundice in the infant appears first in the face and upper body and progresses downward toward the toes. Premature infants are more likely to develop jaundice than full-term babies.Most babies with jaundice have physiologic jaundice. This is the type of jaundice that is caused because of the natural process of breaking down red blood cells.

what causes jaundice

There are at least two significant processes that predispose normal infants to jaundice:

  • The rate of bilirubin production is higher in infants than adults because their red blood cells have a shorter half-life and turn over more rapidly.
  • Infants have a relatively limited ability to conjugate bilirubin, and conjugation in the liver is necessary for efficient elimination.

Additionally, there are a number of pathologic conditions that can result in neonatal jaundice. It include:

  • Conditions that cause accelerated destruction of red cells, which can occur as a result of immune-mediated hemolysis, certain enzyme deficiencies, or structural abnormalities in red cells.
  • Increased intestinal absorption of bilirubin, which blunts the infant’s ability to eliminate this waste product. Infants that fail to feed well are often deficient in the types of intestinal bacteria that metabolize bilirubin, and in such cases, significant amounts of bilirubin of reabsorbed into blood.
  • Genetic defects in hepatic uptake of bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert’s syndrome) or deficiency in the enzyme necessary for conjugating bilirubin (uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase).
other cause of new born jaundice include Breast milk jaundice. This condition may persist as a prolonged physiological
jaundice or it may appear for-the first time after the first week. It is common in solely breast fed babies and the intensity is maximum between 10-14 days of life. But if bilirubin is > 15 mg/dl at 3 weeks, cessation of breast milk for 48 hours will decrease bilirubin levels dramatically and breast milk can be resumed without any risk of recurrence of jaundice.
Risk factors of jaundice
A simple pneumonic for risk factors of jaundice is JAUNDICE
J – Jaundice within first 24 hrs of life
A – A sibling who was jaundiced as neonate
U – Unrecognized hemolysis
N – Non-optimal sucking/nursing
D – Deficiency of G6PD
I – infection
C – Cephalhematoma /bruising
E – East Asian/North Indian
Symptoms of jaundice
The main symptom is a yellow color of the skin. The yellow color is best seen right after gently pressing a finger onto the skin. The color sometimes begins on the face and then moves down to the chest, belly area, legs, and soles of the feet. sometimes jaundice cause extreme tiredness and poor feeding.
Newborn Jaundice Diagnosis
Before a baby can be treated, a careful examination by a pediatrician is all that is needed. The serum bilirubin level may be checked. A Coombs test checks for antibodies that destroy an infant’s red blood cells. Complete blood count and Reticulocyte count should be done.
Newborn Jaundice Medical Treatment
jaundice is often treated with phototherapy. These lights are able to penetrate a baby’s skin and affect the bilirubin within the child. The light changes bilirubin into lumirubin, which is easily handled by the baby’s body. If phototherapy doesn’t work to reduce a baby’s bilirubin level the baby may be placed on a fiber optic blanket and an additional bank of lights may be added.
When all other treatments have failed to reduce the bilirubin level , then exchange transfusion should be done. In this treatment, the baby’s blood is exchanged with donated blood.
Newborn Jaundice Self-Care at Home
1) Sunlight – Place the child in a well-lit window for 10 minutes twice a day is often all that is needed to help cure mild jaundice. Never place an infant in direct sunlight.
2) photo therapy – If the bilirubin level is too high, the child may need to be placed under a special type of light. This treatment is called phototherapy. such lights can be set up at our home with careful monitoring

Article publié pour la première fois le 23/12/2011

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ASBESTOS: Asbestos is a greeck word meaning “UNQUENCHABLE”.In general if coal is lot of dust and little
fibrosis,asbestos is little dust and lot of fibrosis prolonged exposure for number of years to asbestos dust produces
‘three’ types of severe diseases-‘ASBESTOSIS OF LUNGS,PLEURAL DISEASES and TUMOURS’.
Due to its fibre strength and heat resistant properties,asbestos has been used for a wide range ofmanufactured GOODS,mostly
in building materials like ROOFING SHINGLES,CEILING and FLOOR TILES,paper products and asbestos cement products,
friction products like AUTOMOBILES CLUTCH,BRAKES and TRANSMISSION PARTS,heat resistant fibries,Gaskets and Coatings.

when asbestos containing materials are damaged or disturbed ,then by REPAIRING,REMODELING or DEMOLITION
activities,microscopic fibers become air borne and can be inhaled into lungs, causing significant health problems.
Exposure to people who work in industries that mine or make asbestos products and those living near
industries are more prone to asbestos disorders.

ILL EFFECTS OF ASBESTOS OVER HEALTH: Over exposure to asbestos for more than a decade may produce
‘ASBESTOS OF LUNGS,PLEURAL LESIONS and CERTAIN TUMOURS.The inhaled asbestos fibers are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages
from where they reach the interstitum.Some of the engulfed dust is transported via lymphatics to the pleura and regional lymph nodes.
The asbestos-laden macrophages release “CHEMOATTRACTANTS”for neutrophills and for more macrophages,thus inciting
cellular reaction around them.these asbestos fibers are coated with glycoprotein and endogenous HAEMOSIDERIN to
produce characterstic ‘BEADED’ or ‘DUMBELL’shaped asbestos bodies.

These asbestos are fibrogenic and results in INTERSTITIAL FIBROSIS.Fibroblastic proliferation may occur
via macrophage derived growth factor such as “INTERLEUKIN-1”.alternatively,fibrosis may occur as a reparative
response to tissue injury by lysosomal enzymes released from macrophages and neutrophills or by toxic free radicals.
A few immunological abnormalities such ‘ANTI NUCLEAR ANTIBODIES’ and ‘RHEUMATOID FACTOR’have been found in cases of
asbestosis but their role in the genesis is not yet clear…

Article publié pour la première fois le 17/03/2013

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advanced physical therapy


What are the advantages of advanced physical therapy?


Physical therapy is not a new field in the world. This field has existed since many years and its roots can be traced back in ancient times however, it is not sure that when it was finally called physical therapy. Today, we have another form of physical therapy and it is called advanced physical therapy. This new ad advanced form is more efficient and result productive as compared to old one and its old techniques. There are so many advantages of this new physical therapy system and it will not be a wrong statement that things have been changed completely in this field now.


There was a time when only humans used to do physiotherapy but today, there are so many machines and devices available in this field. This is the reason why it is called advanced physical therapy as most of the things are done with the help of machines and devices. If you want to do a particular exercise then you can do it with the help of a machine and similarly, you can easily get any kind of massage with the help of massage device. These gadgets have made this field a revolutionary and ever green field.


There are so many advantages that you can get from these new techniques that are now used in physical therapy. Some of the advantages are listed and described in this article. In past, there was no possibility for a patient to get instant attention as he had to wait for his turn. Imagine what would have happened to those people who used to sit and wait in severe physical pain. Anyhow, with the help of advanced physical therapy it is possible now to manage as many patients as possible. These machines and devices are made for the welfare and human being and the best thing about them is that they don’t get tired at all.


With the help of technology getting involved in this field, physical therapy has become a lot cheaper as compared to old times. This is also due to advanced physical therapy and techniques used in it. Now a patient can get these services at a very reasonable price and he will not have to go here and there in search of proper therapy because these machines can take care of everything. However, you can’t rely on these machines completely as well and that is why there is still need of physical therapists that examine a person and suggest a treatment and therapy plan for him


With the help of advanced physical therapy systems, lives have become more easily and happier. Today, there are all those facilities in physical therapy field about which no one would have ever heard. However, all these things are part of past and today we are living in present world where everything is advanced and enhanced. If you want to do anything then you can do it in an advanced way. The best thing about advanced field of physical therapy is that, people will get cured very soon now.



Article publié pour la première fois le 06/08/2011

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how dangerous is asbestos

Health Concerns: How Dangerous Is Asbestos?

Mesothelioma is the answer to the question how dangerous is asbestos. Over 5000 people are leaving with asbestos related illness, and the numbers continue too as more and more people continue to be diagnosed. In order to be able to answer the question how dangerous is asbestos, we have to look at what asbestos is all about. Asbestos is a mineral that can be mined and has a lot of uses.  Asbestos is known to be resistant to heat and fire as such it is used in a number of customer and business products from plastic carpets to brake pads on the vehicles. As mentioned before it is a mineral that is mined serpentine rocks; it usually grows in the form of crystals.

The asbestos thread in this case when ingested leads to formation of lung cancer. The question of how dangerous is asbestos dates as far back as the ancient Greeks culture. Even they were aware of how dangerous is asbestos if ingested. They realized that their slaves who worked in mining the asbestos mineral stared suffering from lung diseases. It is the form of the asbestos threads that is said to be the leading cause of the health risks.  At the far end of an asbestos thread is a hook- like feature that allows it to grab onto tissue of the lungs. Mesothelioma being an answer to the question how dangerous is asbestos is a form of rare cancer that attacks the lungs and it mostly affects people such as textile workers and miners who work with asbestos.

People who work in asbestos mines, mills, shipyards and factories that use asbestos also can be affected with mesothelioma. Mesothelioma also affects individuals who manufacture asbestos insulators. This show how dangerous is asbestos.

There are 3 things that determines how dangerous is asbestos. This is in regard to the likelihood of being infected with the asbestos related lung disease. First is the extent and duration of exposure. This means that the more one is exposed to threads of asbestos, the higher the chances of them being able to experience asbestos health related problems. While there is no level of safety in exposure of asbestos, people who are exposed more frequently and over a long duration of time are more at danger. The second thing that determines how dangerous is asbestos is your age.

Recent studies show that it is mostly children of people who work with asbestos who are affected. The children got the asbestos from the parent who came home with asbestos dust on their clothing. The fibers find it easier to enter the children’s lungs as their immune system is still weak.

The last thing that determines how dangerous is asbestos is after how long one has detected that they are suffering from an asbestos related sickness that they got treatment. If you are able to detect the symptoms earlier, then chances of cure is a bit high. Because every exposure to asbestos raises the body composition of asbestos, it is very necessary to try and reduce your exposure.

Article publié pour la première fois le 28/07/2013

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Sports Rehabilitation Training

Sports Rehabilitation Training

Training is very important in any area but such needs to be suitable training. Proper training equips one with the necessary skills and techniques necessary for addressing and solving problems that arise in a particular area. As more sports personalities become health conscious and want to be active for a long time, sports rehabilitation has become very necessary. Contrary to common misconception, rehabilitation in sports is not restricted to treating injured athletes but rather covers prevention of injuries.

Sports rehabilitation training is a very challenging training program that addresses particular health issues relating to athletes. The training program is challenging because of the varied sports disciplines that present different health challenges. In many jurisdictions, rehabilitation training is strictly regulated, with training offered at different levels. Training authorities in different jurisdictions have developed training programs from certificate level to diploma, higher diploma and degree level. Those wishing to receive the training are obligated to meet training entry requirements for admission. In most jurisdictions, those wishing to receive training at degree level must have high qualifications in science subjects.

Te training covers different areas including sports exercises, injury prevention, musculoskeletal screening and postural assessment. These are divided into different training modules that a trainee has to cover in three years for award of a degree. Sports rehabilitation training is not however restricted to the indicated areas. One also receives training in sports nutrition, physiotherapy and biomechanics. At the end of training, a sports rehabilitator is expected to be able to:

  • Help prevent sports injuries in athletes placed under their care by providing education on the safe ways to undertake sports exercises.
  • Diagnose and treat musculoskeletal injuries in athletes.
  • Apply appropriate rehabilitation techniques in treating injured athletes to enable them recover quickly to return to their sports activities.
  • Uphold and maintain high standards in the course of his/her practice and in particular, dealing with different athletes.

Generally, sports rehabilitators are expected to conduct themselves the way doctors do; treat athletes in confidence and release any details of their injuries with their approval.

Like in other medical training courses, a sports rehabilitator does not go straight into practice upon graduation. A rehabilitator is obligated to practice under the supervision of a recognized and approved orthopedic specialist or consultant. Such placement is usually for one month. A qualified rehabilitator is obligated to practice under different orthopedic specialists before he/she is certified and approved to practice independently. Sports injury clinics, professional sports clubs and private practice are some of the environments qualified rehabilitators are engaged in.

Sports rehabilitation training does end at the degree level. The basic degree training opens up other avenues for additional training. Some sports rehabilitators have proceeded to undertaken further training, qualifying with Master’s and Doctorate degrees in Sports Injury Rehabilitation. Although there are many universities and other higher education training institutions around the world, very few offer rehabilitation in sports as a course. In any case, the universities and other institutions offering the training are mainly in developed countries. As demand for rehabilitation services in sports increases however, things are bound to change and many training institutions will certainly embrace rehabilitation in sports as a training course.


Article publié pour la première fois le 06/08/2011

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guide to physical therapy practice


Why do you need a guide to physical therapy practice?


Are you planning to make a career in physical therapy? If yes then you must know that guide to physical therapy practice is very important. If you don’t have proper guidance then there is nothing that you can do so, first of all you will need to find guidance. This guidance can be in the form of a book or a person. If we are talking about book then this book can be a unique book written on the subject and if we are talking about a person then let it be a teacher who acts like a guide. These teachers are anyone’s main source of information and education and if you will not respect the teacher then you may not get anything in your life.

That is why whenever you find a guide to physical therapy practice; you should start following him so that he can teach you many good techniques. Remember that you can’t learn anything about physical therapy on your own. Even if you will learn different things then that will be a guess work and this guess work doesn’t work in practical world. That is why you should always look for a solid guide in this field.


Book as a guide:

Some people live in an imaginative world where they have their own rules and regulations and they don’t want anyone to break those rules. If you are looking for a guide to physical therapy practice then you can find a good book that can serve the purpose of a guide as well. it is not easy to find someone who can act like a guide and help you understand different things but it is quite easy to find a good book that will not only guide you but it will be your companion too when you are alone.


Teacher as a guide:

Definitely a teacher can be a guide as well. If you want to get practical experience then you better stick with those people who are near to this real world. This will help you to din an appropriate person to whom you can follow. If you are taking training classes to become a physical therapist then you can simply make your instructor your guide. Once you will make your instructor a guide, he will start taking interest in your training and you will definitely learn all those things in just one month.


Learning to become a physical therapist is not an easy thing to do as there are many challenges in this field. However, if you will choose the right path then it will not be very difficult for you to choose your guide to physical therapy practice. With the help of this guide, you can learn about different things at a very fast pace. Once you will learn all those things that are required to become a good physical therapist then you will be ready to start providing your services in the field of healthcare.



Article publié pour la première fois le 06/08/2011

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Common Diabetes Myths

Common Diabetes Myths

I recently created a resource for people with diabetes which required me to surf through hundreds of different forums and blogs. In the process of researching and creating content, I saw a handful of statements that sounded humorous. Granted, I did a lot of research on the topic and consider myself quite knowledgeable on the disease, but I realized that others were starting to believe them as facts. Here are the top myths we came across:

  1. Once you have diabetes, you have the disease for life: There is a bit of truth to this in that type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that is irreversible. Unfortunately, the body is unable to produce insulin on its own and those with type 1 diabetes will require insulin until a cure is found. However, 95% of those with diabetes have type 2, which is reversible! With a healthy diet and exercise program that promotes weight loss, one can eliminate their dependency on insulin. This will only happen if the diabetic loses a considerable amount of weight, which a doctor and dietitian can help with.
  2. People with diabetes shouldn’t play sports: I saw several people ask whether those with diabetes should play sports and saw several people respond that they shouldn’t for a wide variety of reasons. This is completely not true! People with diabetes can play sports just like everyone else. In fact, playing sports is a great form of exercise which can help with your weight loss goals and make managing the disease easier. There are several famous athletes that have led exceptional careers with diabetes, including:
    • Jay Cutler- Quarterback for the Chicago Bears
    • Wade Wilson- Was an NFL quarterback for 17 years
    • Jerry Stackhouse- Won the NBA championship with the Dallas Mavericks in 2011
    • Walt Frazier- NBA legend
    • Mark Lowe- current pitcher for the Texas Rangers
    • Jackie Robinson- First African American baseball player and MLB legend
  3. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes- This is simply not true. Eating a diet that is high in sugar and fat can ultimately cause one to be overweight, which can lead to type 2 diabetes. However, there is no direct link between a diet that is high in sugar and developing diabetes.

There are several other rumors that our team saw during the creation of our diabetes guide that frighten us. Some of the answers people posted to questions contained information that was very false and could have serious consequences if readers interpret them to be facts. We hope to help de-bunk these myths so that people have a better understanding of the disease.

Bio: Adam Bruk is an online marketing specialist for When he isn’t busy analyzing retail and fashion trends in diabetic socks for men, he enjoys golfing, cooking, and traveling.



Article publié pour la première fois le 19/10/2011

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Benefits of Asbestos Paint

The Benefits of Asbestos Paint

Asbestos was a commonly use material in the building industry before the 1980s. This is because the material exhibited a high resistant to heat and also it was very durable. As a result many old houses feature asbestos in their interior or exterior. However, scientist later discovered that asbestos fibers were responsible for crippling lung diseases such s cancer. Following this, asbestos was banned as a construction material and houses that contain asbestos have either to be demolished or have the asbestos covered to prevent the fibers from contaminating the air. The second option is the best as the owner of the house does not suffer from financial loss. One of the best ways to deal with asbestos in building is to cover it with paint.

Asbestos paint covering came as neither solution when it was realized that people could still neither live in a house with asbestos provided that the material was nor releasing fibers into the air. To do this asbestos paint was used to maintain the integrity of the material and prevent it from leaking into the atmosphere. One of the places that asbestos paint can be used is on shingles. Asbestos shingles are not normally a health risk until they start breaking. With the onset of breaking, shingles can present a health risk to all individuals who live in the surroundings. To prevent this, you can repaint the asbestos shingles in your house so that the asbestos is not exposed. However, take care of yourself while carrying out this task. Make sure you cover yourself including your nose so that you do not inhale asbestos fibers.  Another precaution you can do while applying asbestos paint on shingles is wetting the shingles before you paint them. This will help you scrub of the dirt without unsettling the asbestos fibers.

Asbestos paint can also be applied on the walls of a house that contain asbestos. This will preserve the integrity of asbestos and thus prevent the release of harmful asbestos fibers into the atmosphere. To do this safely, you need t observe a few guidelines. This will make sure your health is not compromised by being exposed to harmful asbestos fibers. The plaster used in walls of old houses will contain asbestos and with age, the asbestos may become loose and contaminate the air with dangerous fibers. To successfully apply asbestos paint on walls, you will need a small spray gun and mark ff the edges of the wall that do not need to be painted over. Next use an oil based paint or primer mixture to spray the wall that contains asbestos plaster. Cover your face with a protective masking and start spraying the wall slowly so that you do not upset the asbestos. You can achieve this by spraying the wall 6 to 8 inches away so that the spray jet does not dislodge the asbestos. To achieve the best results in asbestos paint process, use two to three layers of paint s that the asbestos is fully covered.

Article publié pour la première fois le 24/10/2013

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Truth About Six Pack Abs Review

Do you want to have a great body shape? Many ladies would want to do that. But you can find that there are also many men who would like to have perfect body shape! The definition of perfect body shape varies from men to women. For men, body shape should be perfect only when they have the six pack abs.

But you would find that there are some people who fail to have the abs even though they try their best to work on the exercises. One of the reasons is that they do not know the right way that they should do and they therefore fail to achieve the results that they expect to have.

If you encounter similar difficulties, you can try to find information from the book Truth About Six Pack Abs. As you can read from some of the Truth About Six Pack Abs Reviews, there are a lot of useful tips that you can bear in mind from this book.

For example, you will know the food which can help you equip yourself with the necessary energy while keeping your body shape great. Some of the food would help you build your muscles well so that you can take these foods if you want to have the six pack abs. On the other hand, you will also find that some of the food should be prohibited while you are working hard to train your body. Some people did not know clearly about this and this is the reason why they failed to have a good body shape.

On the other hand, this book would tell you a lot about the right way that you can do in order to have the results in training. There are a lot of people who do exercises but they might not be doing the right exercises to train the particular part of body for the six pack abs. Therefore, you can find that the training of six pack abs mentioned from this book would be quite useful.

Some people think that this book is designed for people who have already got fitness. However, this book is actually designed for all men to do. You will find that thin men can also follow the tips provided by this book and train themselves to become fit men with the six pack abs.

Therefore, you would find that there are a lot of people recommending this book to the others. It is very good for you to buy this book to read because you would find that there are many new ways that you can try to have the training. If you are ladies, you can also buy this book for your men so that your men would have the wonderful six pack abs. Therefore, you can try to find the relevant information online which can help you understand better about this book. You will definitely find the relevant information from Truth About Six Pack Abs Review and understand more about how to work on training.


Article publié pour la première fois le 21/07/2011

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Yellow jaundice

Yellow jaundice is the name given to jaundice and it is because of the yellowish pigmentation of the conjunctival membrane, of the skin or the white of the eyes. It can also cause mucous membrane to turn yellow in addition of hyperbilirubinemia. When the level of the bilirubin gets high, then the bilirubin can begin to get into extracellular fluid.

It is hard to know the level of the damage of the liver accurately. The liver damage symptoms in the early stages look exactly like the symptoms found in other diseases. The early symptoms are pain in the liver, fatigue and the feel of being sick. Sometime they can be accompanied by diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea and weakness. After getting the above symptoms, the patient can show additional symptoms when the liver is seriously damaged. The color of the skin will begin to turn yellow, in severe cases the eyes can turn also yellow. This is caused by the high level of bilirubin into the blood. Cholestasis is the reduced or a complete absence of the bile flow. The bile can be blocked into the liver or even outside the liver. This will include abdominal discomfort and the patient can begin to vomit blood because of  stomach hemorrhage. Because of the losing of fat and water, the patient can begin to lose weight. In this case, the patient should keep away from food that has sugar and unhealthy fats.  He can also reduce the symptoms by eating green vegetables and fruits.

Article publié pour la première fois le 08/08/2011

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Symptoms and Treatment of Whiplash

whiplashWhiplashes vary in their symptoms. Neck pains are the most common and the major symptoms of whiplash. Numbness of arms, shoulder or hands is most commonly seen in these patients. Headaches and vision related problems are other symptoms of whiplash which cannot be neglected and must be taken into consideration, and a few lots of people even experience hearing difficulties and dizziness.

There are various set of treatments for Whiplash. Quebec task force have recommended that individuals who are a victim of whiplash associated disorder grade 1-2 must be involved in motion related exercises, mobilizations, and manipulations.   Drugs like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and Non-narcotic analgesics can also be prescribed if the case comes under WAD 3 or WAD3. But the use of these drugs should be limited. They can only be used up to the period of 3 weeks only, not more than that. A cervical collar must be used within the period of 72 hours, i.e. 3 days from the first one or it might lead to a series of inactivity for many years. Doctors treating patients with such type of injuries always encourage their patients to perform natural activities, as that might lead to a fast recovery.

The national institute for Neurological disorders and stroke has taken a little bit more different approach to these injuries which includes pain medications, antidepressants ,the use of muscle relaxants and cervical collar apart from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which was already recommended by Quebec Task Force (QTF). As said earlier these medicines must not be taken for more than 3 days in a row. Apart from drugs and medications, the national institute for neurological disorders and stroke has also prescribed exercises related to motion, physical therapies and cervical traction. To relive muscle tension they recommend the use of supplemental heat applications.

There are many healthcare clinics that you can approach. Chiropractic wellness care is one such noted clinics which are very famous in dealing with injuries related to whiplash, you can always approach these clinics to get treatment.

During treatments the important parts that doctors concentrate are:

  • Spinal motion.
  • The way in which the victim holds on to his/her body
  • The damage that have occurred to the nerves and spinal cord of these victims.
  • The present status of the joints, muscles and Ligaments.


Though these treatments might work out, but always keep in mind that “Prevention is better than cure” .There is no substitute for prevention.

Hence always consider these 4 points to avoid whiplashes.

  • Use headrests in cars and wear helmets while driving motor vehicles.
  • Use headrests effectively and make sure that they are not lesser than your height.
  • While performing exercises make sure that you don’t give a lot of stress to your neck.
  • Approach the concerned doctor immediately if you get any sort of neck pain.

While getting treated for whiplash injuries don’t go for ordinary doctors, just take an advice or two from your nearest doctor and then go for specialist doctors to get it treated. Never neglect any of the neck pains. Communicate properly with the doctor who is treating you, never hide any of your pains, and always be frank.

Article publié pour la première fois le 07/08/2012

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cholestatic jaundice

Cholestatic jaundice

Cholestatic jaundice is a condition in which there is a blockage in the flow of bile movement which then causes the overflow into the bloodstream. It is a condition where blockage of the flow of bile from t

he liver causes overspill of bile products into the blood and incomplete bile excretion from the body results.

Causes of cholestatic jaundice

There are several causes of Cholestatic jaundice, which are given as under

  • caroli’s disease ( congenital disorder characterized by multifocal, segmental dilatation of large intrahepatic bile ducts )
  • cystic fibrosis (an inherited disease of the mucus glands that affects many body systems causes progressive damage to the respiratory system and chronic digestive system problems)
  • choledocholithiasis (presence of at least one gallstone in the common bile duct)
  • hepatic adenoma (are uncommon benign epithelial liver tumors frequently located in the right hepatic lobe)
  • primary biliary cirrhosis ( irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the bile ducts of the liver)
  • sarcoidosis ( patches of inflamed cells — called granulomas , usually in the lungs and nearby lymph nodes occurs)
  • liver cancer
  • alveolar hydatid disease ( parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of a microscopic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis)
  • combined oral contraceptives
  • gold salts
  • diazepam
  • phenyl butazone
  • para- amino salicylic acid
  • liver metastasis
  • lathosterolosis ( defect of cholesterol biosynthesis due to the deficiency of the enzyme sterol-C5-desaturase)
  • dubin-johnson syndrome ( rare genetic disorder, in which a child must get a copy of the defective gene from both parents)
  • pencillamine
  • oxazepam
  • citrullinemia type 2
  • pyritinol
  • primary sclerosing cholangitis ( disease that leads to liver damage and, eventually, liver failure)
  • indomethacin
  • choledochal cyst
  • cholangitis
  • pancreatic cancer
  • lorazepam
  • gall bladder cancer
  • rifampicin
  • mirizzi syndrome ( common hepatic duct obstruction caused by an extrinsic compression from an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann’s pouch of the gallbladder)
  • klatskin tumor(bile duct bifurcation)

symptoms of cholestatic jaundice

symptoms mainly include

  • dark coloured urine
  • pale stools
  • Yellow colouration of skin and eyes
  • itchy skin
  • fever
  • chills
  • rigors
  • Episodic right upper abdominal pain
  • weight loss
  • diarrhoea
  • Steatorrhoea
  • fatty
  • Smelly stools that are difficult to flush away due to fat malabsorption
  • excessive bleeding
  • brusing
  • Enlarged liver (tender mass under right rib cage)
  • Enlarged spleen (tender mass under left side of rib cage)
  • night sweats
  • anorexia
  • malaise
  • Xanthelasma/xanthomata (fatty yellow nodules under eyes/on wrists and hands)
  • abdominal distention
  • ascitis
Treatment of cholestatic jaundice
  • Surgical removal of obstruction – generally laparascopic surgery or ERCP should be done
  • stop the drugs that is suspected to cause liver inflammation – e.g. steroids, sulfonylureas
  • antibiotics
  • liver transplantation

Article publié pour la première fois le 17/09/2016

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occupational therapy vs physical therapy


The great battle: occupational therapy vs physical therapy


If it is really required to bring a battle like occupational therapy vs physical therapy then I would definitely like to play my part in this battle. Basically I will not call it as a battle or battle ground because these are two different fields that are often mixed with each other. The main reason for this misshapen is the less knowledge database of people. Even health care professional are not able to convey their messages properly to the common people. The common people are those people who will be in need of occupational or physical therapy in future but when they will not know anything about these fields then how they will be able to help themselves?


Basically occupational therapy vs physical therapy is a very simple topic and a person like me can simply say that don’t mess these two fields with each other. However, the purpose of these two therapeutic methods is similar to each other and that is why they are often confused in the society. However, by the end of this article, there will be no confusion in your mind as we will differentiate both these fields very easily.


There was a time when occupational therapy vs physical therapy was not a hot topic but today, this has been made as one of the hottest topic in online market. Let us discuss about physical therapist first. The working strategy of physical therapist can be understood very easily as most of the things are said by this name “physical therapy”. In this process, different physical processes are applied on human body so that those parts of the body that are not working properly can start working properly. If a child has broken his arm while playing then he can be brought to a physical therapist and he will do proper therapy for that child so that he can start playing in streets again.


On the other hand if we talk about occupational therapists, while living in occupational therapy vs physical therapy then I must say that occupational therapists are different from physical therapists. Physical therapists are just limited to physical therapy and there is nothing else that they can do or they have the license to do. If you have got any problem in your life or you think that you will not be able to spend a happy life ahead because there is so much on your mind then you can take services of an occupational therapist. These therapists not only work in favor of those people who are going through some mental struggle but they help all those people who have any emotional imbalance in their life. Moreover, if a patient is having some serious physical problem then he can also be treated with the help of occupational therapy. An occupational therapist has the experience to deal with different kind of patients and he know very well how to control a situation in hospital or therapy center.



Article publié pour la première fois le 06/08/2011

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How to identify asbestos

How to identify asbestos

Homes and buildings built after the mid 1980s are unlikely to contain asbestos-based construction materials. These materials were phased out in the 1980s, but it was used heavily in buildings/homes built from 1930 to 1980.

how to identify asbestos? Asbestos cannot easily be recognized. Unless a material is labeled as containing asbestos, just looking at it with the naked eye will not discern the presence of asbestos. There are still some ways to identify asbestos. These are not accurate but can give you an idea on how to identify asbestos:

-Sidings – Asbestos fibers were heavily used for making home sidings. Look at the thickness of paint on the siding. If there are many layers of paint, then it means the sliding is old enough to contain asbestos.

-Pipe insulation –  In the manufacturing process, asbestos pipe insulation was covered with a corrugated cardboard wrapper.And modern pipes are coated with heavy weight craft paper.Just see the exposed end of the pipe insulation. You can easily identify cardboard wrapper against craft paper.

– Floor tiles- Asbestos was also used heavily in making tiles and you can see them in old houses or renovated flooring.These tiles are typically black, brown or dark gray and tend to be much thicker than more modern, asbestos-free tiles. Most products which contain asbestos and can be inhaled are required to be labeled these days.

Article publié pour la première fois le 20/03/2013

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Intracerebral hemorrhage

 Intracerebral hemorrhage

It  is a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding inside the skull) that occurs within the brain tissue itself. Most intracerebral hemorrhages occur in the basal ganglia, cerebral lobes, cerebellum, or pons. Intracerebral hemorrhage may also occur in other parts of the brain stem or in the midbrain

.   intra cerebral hemorrhage is  divided into..

1) intra-axial hemorrhage; that it occurs within the brain tissue rather than outside of it.there are mainly two types of intra cranial hemorrhage i.e. intra parenchymal hemorrhage and intravenous hemorrhages.

         2) extra-axial hemorrhage, such as  epidural, sub- dural and sub arachnoid hematomas which all occor within the skull but outside the brain tissue  


Alternative Names of hemorrhage

Intra cranial hemorrhage; Hemorrhage – intracerebral; Hypertensive hemorrhage; Hemorrhagic cerebro vascular  disease


causes of hemorrhage

Internal bleeding can occur in any part of the brain. Blood may build up in the brain tissues, or in the space between the brain and the membranes that cover it.The bleeding may only be in one hemisphere ( lobar intracerebral hemorrhage). Or it may occur in other brain structures, such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, pons, or cerebellum (deep  intracerebral hemorrhage)  causes are..

1) aneurysm or vascular malformation

2)  High blood pressure

3) amyloid angiopathy ( Protein deposits along blood vessels)

4) trauma to the brain

in some cases it may be due to unknown cause. Blood irritates the brain tissues, causing swelling (cerebral edema). It can collect into a mass called a hematoma. Either swelling or a hematoma will increase pressure on nearby brain tissues

Risk factors of hemorrhage

the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage include the following:

a) Blood and bleeding disorders

b) Decreased levels of blood platelets

c) disseminated intravascular coagulation

d) hypertension

e) diabeties

f) menopause

g) cigarette smoking

h)  drink alcohol

i) hemophillia

j) leukemia

k) sickle cell anemia

l) brain tumors

m) liver diseases

n) use of aspirin or anti coagulant medications.

Premature infants (born earlier than 35 weeks) will sometimes have bleeding into the fluid-filled spaces (ventricles) in the brain. This type of bleed is called intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH). This occurs in the first day or so of life and is usually not preventable







    Article publié pour la première fois le 04/10/2011

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    How to identify asbestos

    How to identify asbestos Homes and buildings built after the mid 1980s are unlikely to contain asbestos-based construction materials. These materials were phased out in the 1980s, but it was used heavily in buildings/homes built from 1930 to 1980.


    how to identify asbestos? Asbestos cannot easily be recognized. Unless a material is labeled as containing asbestos, just looking at it with the naked eye will not discern the presence of asbestos. There are still some ways to identify asbestos. These are not accurate but can give you an idea on how to identify asbestos: – Sidings – Asbestos fibers were heavily used for making home sidings. Look at the thickness of paint on the siding. If there are many layers of paint, then it means the sliding is old enough to contain asbestos. -Pipe insulation –  In the manufacturing process, asbestos pipe insulation was covered with a corrugated cardboard wrapper.And modern pipes are coated with heavy weight craft paper.Just see the exposed end of the pipe insulation. You can easily identify cardboard wrapper against craft paper. – Floor tiles- Asbestos was also used heavily in making tiles and you can see them in old houses or renovated flooring.These tiles are typically black, brown or dark gray and tend to be much thicker than more modern, asbestos-free tiles. Most products which contain asbestos and can be inhaled are required to be labeled these days.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 22/07/2013

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    Diagnosis andTreatment of basal ganglia stroke

    Diagnosis and treatment of basal ganglia stroke

    Diagnosis of a stroke is based on

    1)individual’s history,

    2)neurological examination

    3)brain imaging.

    4)CT scan

    During the acute phase of a stroke, treatment ranges  from conservative treatment  to  invasive treatment. conservative treatment consisting of:

    1)Pain medication

    2)Stabilizing vital signs

    3)Lowering pressure inside the head

     invasive treatment  consist of:

    a)Surgery to remove any blood to relieve pressure

    b) shunt operation to drain the system

    After the acute phase Rehabilitation therapy plays a vital  role to getting the patient back to health as quickly as possible.

      Basal ganglia stroke recovery

    Most of the individual start  recovery process from a stroke virtually moments after the stroke happening. Recovery which is spontaneous usually explains the  progress in the first month after a stroke. Recovery mainly depends upon

    • Brain damage extent
    • Individual’s attitude
    • Skills of the medical professionals
    • Assistance of friends and family
                                      Basal ganglia stroke prognosis                          person will progress from basal ganglia stroke depends on several factors – such as:

    • Severity of any impairment
    • Exact location of injury to the brain
    • Individual’s age
    • Individual’s general medical condition

    Article publié pour la première fois le 11/10/2011

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    Non-friable asbestos

    Non-friable asbestos:
    There are two types of asbestos- friable and non friable.Friable means which can be crushed into powder by hand pressure while non friable cannot be crushed by hand.Non-friable asbestos is hard to break into smaller pieces.
    Non friable asbestos is less dangerous than friable asbestos, however it should still be treated with caution and disposed of properly.
    Some properties of non friable asbestos:
    • It has low probability  of releasing fibers into air.
    • Difficult to break or crush  by hand
    • Fibers are bound or locked into matrix of binder material, such as cement, vinyl or resin.
    Examples of non friable asbestos:
    • base flashing
    • asphalt/cement roofing products
    • asbestos cement  pipes
    • siding
    • vinyl asbestos floor tile
    • gaskets
    Categories of non friable asbestos:
    Non friable asbestos is broadly categorized into 2 categories:
    Category I Non-Friable: It consists of asbestos which are very tough or unlikely to be made into friable.
    Examples include vinyl floor coverings, vinyl asbestos tile
    Category II Non-Friable: These materials are more likely to be made friable, as they are not resistant to weathering or crushing forces.
    Handling of non friable asbestos:
    Never break up or smash an asbestos product this will release asbestos.
    For example :If you are removing asbestos tiles, you can do so safely if the tiles can be pulled without shattering, pulverizing or crumbling.
    You shouldnot sand, grind, saw, chip, pound or use hand or power tools on the VATs so that it creates dust. You must remove the tiles intact.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 22/07/2013

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    Panic Away Scam

    In recent years, you can find that there are some people who want to find methods to treat problems like panic disorder. The problem of panic disorder would get more and more serious if you do not tackle it in a positive manner. In other words, the situation would become worse if you do not find methods to cure the problem as soon as possible.

    Therefore, you can probably find that there are some books in the market for you to read and understand more about how to manage your emotion and get rid of the panic order. You would find that some of the books like Panic Away would be quite popular among the readers. Even though some people do not believe that this kind of book would help, the fact is that many people get the help already.

    Yes, you can find that Panic Away Scam is impossible. Instead, this kind of book is awesome and it would not be difficult for you to understand more about how to control yourself as long as you try your best to read and follow the tips stated in the books.

    In fact, it is very easy for you to find information about how to deal with anxiety if you try to search online. However, those methods are not the reliable methods because they might not be comprehensive enough. Yes, you might find that the information would be rough and it would be quite difficult for you to follow some tips step by step. This would certainly hinder your process of learning because you will not be successful in understanding the whole process of curing panic disorder.

    If you read Panic Away, you certainly find that it is not a scam. It is because the writer also encountered the panic disorder disease when he was young. Therefore, he knew well about the world of the patients and he would always be able to describe the information and the problems encountered by the patients accurately so that the patients would be able to understand a lot about the situation.

    The suggestions provided by the author in the book of Panic Away are insightful and they are not fake. Many people have tried to use this kind of methods to relax themselves and the result is that most of them are very happy with the treatment stated with the book. Therefore, you can find that there are really a lot of supporters of this book who have tried to use the methods stated there before and they have got a new life after reading the book.

    You would find that there are more and more people who are interested in reading the book. Therefore, you can try to find the information related to the book if you want to have a nice experience about curing panic disorder. If you find that your friends are suffering from this kind of illness, you can try to help them by giving them this book. They would certainly thank you a lot.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 18/07/2011

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    How Asbestos Workers Are Affected

    How Asbestos Workers Are Affected

    Asbestos is a mineral fiber that before it was banned was used in manufacturing building materials, insulation materials, in ceiling and even floor tiles.  Although asbestos workers exposed to asbestos fibers won’t at the beginning feeling the effect of exposure, in the long run the asbestos workers may experience lung disease due to the exposure. It is for this very reason, many state governments have banned the use of asbestos in any manufacture; despite the ban and the effects of asbestos, the number of asbestos workers is still on the rise. Asbestos as mentioned before has thread like features which when exposed to the atmosphere, becomes invisible.


    Asbestos workers in this regard while working, inhales the thread without knowing it and sometimes carries it home in their clothes. Studies show that all the asbestos related sickness tends to affect the asbestos workers because of long term exposure to the fibers. It is said that the workers develop the asbestos related symptoms between 15-50 years after them being exposed. One of the ways that the asbestos workers are affected negatively is through them contracting lung cancer. When the worker breathes in the fibers, they are attached to the lung cells causing limited blood ad air flow to the lungs. Some of the earlier symptoms that one may experience is coughing persistently, difficulty in breathing and sometimes pain is associated with coughing.  The hugest risk for this lung cancer is that with time, the tumors can spread to other parts of the body causing death.

    Asbestos workers also have the risk of being affected with mesothelioma which is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the lining that surrounds the organs of the body. These linings are known as mesothelium. It affects the men workers more than the women, about 80 percent of the asbestos workers who are exposed to asbestos risk being infected with mesothelioma. The problem with this type of cancer is that, it takes many years for the symptoms to show. As such by the time it is diagnosed, it usually is at the advanced stage and the only way to treat it or reduce pain is through radiation and chemotherapy.

    Asbestos workers also have the risk of contracting asbestosis which is a scar like feature in the lungs. It usually is as a result of being exposed to asbestos over a long period of time. The symptoms for this disease are coughing, fingers curling and also shortness of breath. If you want to treat asbestosis, there are drugs that are advised for one to take so as to decrease inflammation of the lungs and pneumonia. Because asbestos workers have the highest risk of being infected, the health experts’ advice that the workers should limit being exposed to asbestos as that is the best way to stop the spread of the disease. According to experts also, people are exposed to asbestos if the asbestos tiles or ceilings are damaged. So, if you know that you have asbestos tiles, you should make sure that it is removed to prevent any risk.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 24/10/2013

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    One of the most common form of cancer that develops in mesothelial cell lining of many organs and body cavities. This cancer typically attack the thin lining of lungs,abdomen,heart known as mesothelium. Sometime also affect the lining of testicals.In this condition the tissue cells in the lungs or in bronchial tubes divide rapidly and uncontrollably with abnormal characteristics.
    • Exposure to asbestos
    • Smokers
    • Asbestos related diseases
    • Any type of lung disease
    Mesothelioma is the rare form of cancer caused by an exposure to ASBESTOS.
    Asbestos is a fibrous silicate i.e in its natural form ,A SOFT ROCK.In commercial form it looks like an attic insulation-i.e  A BALL OF THICK FUZZ.
    Because of its certain properties like :
    HEAT AND CHEMICAL RESISTANT,making it useful for home construction material for insulation as fire-retardant.
    Due to its long durability these fibres can be inhaled into the body and will remain for a long period of time and cause a rare form of cancer called MESOTHELIOMA.
    In raw form it look like rock fragment and when mixes with other compounds it is used to form building supplies like  insulation,floor tiles,siding,ceiling.
    Each mineral is divided into :SERPENTILE and AMPHIBOLE..
    Serpentile include chrysotile type of asbestos having layered or curly fibers.
    Amphibole include all those forms of asbestos having straight or chain like fibers like amosite,crocidolite.
    In addition to this there are some other forms of asbestos- ANTHOPHYLITE,ACTINOLITE,TREMOLITE
    1)AMOSITE : these are also called as BROWN ASBESTOS mainly brown or gray in colour having straight amosite fibers made up of iron and magnesium
    2)CROCIDOLITE: these are also known to be  BLUE ASBESTOS having blue straight fibers made up of sodium,iron magnesium silicate.this is the most lethal form.
    3)TREMOLITE:mostly found in metamorphic rocks.creamy white or dark green in colour used as an ingradient in talcum powder.
    4)ANTHOPHYLITE: having chain like appearance formed by breakdown of talc in ultramafic rock. not commonly used.
    5)ACTINOLITE: also exist in metamorphic rocks mostly gray white or green in colour having no strong history of industrial or commercial use.
    6)CHRYSOTILE:consist of mineral crystallized in serpentile pattern i.e crystals are formed in sheets.mostly white or greenish in colour. the curly fibers
    are made up of magnesium silicate.
    In this the tissue cells of lungs and respiratory organs begin to divide is mainly of 2 types:
    small cell and non small cell.
    1)PLEURAL:this is the most common type occurs 75% and mainly affects the lining of lung pleura.
    2)PERITONIAL:mainly affects abdominal peritoneum that covers abdominal cavity and abdominal organs.
    3)PERICARDIAL:occurs in pericardial membrane that covers the heart.
    4)TESTICULAR:affects the lining of testicle i.e tunica vaginalis.
    THE symptoms commonly occurs between 20-50 years of age.the common symptoms are :
    Certain theories should be given in this case:
    Firstly asbestos causes irritation and inflammation of mesothelial cells results in irreversible scarring,cellular damage and cancer.
    Secondly asbestos causes production of free radicals and these molecules damage DNA cause cells to mutate and become cancerous.
    This disease is very difficult to diagnose as it is very similar to other diseases and conditions.therefore first step is to take-
    1) CHEST X-RAY
    2) MRI
    3) CT-SCAN
    4) PET-SCANS to examine chest and abdomen
    Biopsy confirms this there is removal of small amount of tissue to be can be done during a procedure called THORACOSCOPY.
    Surgery is most commonly used.It include this part of pleura is removed.extra pleural pneumenctomy.In this there is removal of lung,pleura,pericardium and good portion of diaphragm.Incase if patient have associated pleural effusion then pleurodesis i.e fluid can be drained should be done,in some cases radiation therapy i.e high energy beams of radiations is used to shrink tumors and also damage cancer cell DNA so that it will not be able to multiply.

    Sometime radiation therapy should be given along with surgery and chemotherapy this is called as trimodality therapy.


    Article publié pour la première fois le 30/09/2016

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    cape asbestos

    What is Asbestos? How It Can Harm You It is a combination of natural silicate minerals and these have desirable physical properties. These are very important minerals due to their physical properties. The inhalation of these asbestos also cause a no of diseases in human beings. Therefore we should use these minerals with care so that we can avoid from problems in future. The inhalation of asbestos may cause the lung cancer, mesothelioma and many other diseases. Therefore we should avoid from these products. In the most of the countries the asbestos products has banned due to their toxic side effects.  Especially the European countries have banned the extraction, processing and manufacture of these harmful products. The asbestos became very popular among the most of the builders and manufacturers due to its physical properties. The most important physical properties include the average tensile strength, resistant to heat and fire and many others. These physical properties are very important so the most of the builders prefer the uses of these products. The asbestos is resistant to heat and this physical property is very important. Most of the builders use the asbestos due to this specific property.


    When the builders use cap asbestos then the fibers of asbestos mix with cement. The cape asbestos operated many factories in UK.  These factories produced a large no of products. As there are many risks associated with the use of these products therefore the cape asbestos closed its factories. There are many types of diseases associated with the use of asbestos. The most important disease is the mesothelioma. The mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops in the cavity of lungs and some doctors suggests that there is no treatment available for this disease. This disease usually leads to death after appearance of symptoms. Similarly the asbestosis is another type of disease caused by asbestos. The asbestosis is characterized by the development of fibrosis in lungs. This fibrosis effect the respiratory ability of the lungs. It usually reduces the respiratory ability of the lungs. Similarly the pleural plaques are also caused by the asbestos. This disease affects the lining of the lungs and creates the lesions on the lining of the lungs. These lesions become harder with the passage of time. There are many other types of disorders related to the use of asbestos products. Therefore the products of the cape asbestos has banned due to their side effects. The mode of action of these asbestos is very important. There is a direct connection between the asbestos and benign. The asbestos powders are microscopic in nature therefore the inhalation of the asbestos microscopic particles may be very dangerous for the workers. After the inhalation of these particles to lungs they transport to pleura. These particles are very harmful for the pleura. The pleuron is a protective layer in the chest cavity. The asbestos powder deposited in the pleural cells. The asbestos powder is very harmful against the pleura cells. Therefore we should avoid from the use of asbestos products so that we can avoid from any problem.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 24/10/2013

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    Treatment of stroke

    Treatment of stroke  Treatment depend on whether the stroke is caused by a blood clot (ischemic) or by bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic) . The damage caused by a stroke often occurs within the first few hours. Faster we receive treatment, lesser damage will occur Treatment focuses on restoring blood flow for an ischemic stroke or controlling bleeding for a hemorrhagic stroke.  Treatment of ischemis stroke depends upon the cause and location of the clot.following treatment should be given  1) usually IV fluids should be given in order to prevent dehydration 2) oxygen should be given so that brain get maximum amount of it. 3) Blood pressure control: . Many different medications can be used to lower the blood pressure including pills, nitroglycerin paste, or IV injections. In case of acute stroke given a clot-dissolving medicine called tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), which can increase chances of survival and recovery. such medicine works with the body's own chemicals and helps to dissolve the blockage in the blood vessel in the brain that may cause stroke. It is the same drug that is often used to treat heart attacks. . At some hospitals, clot-busting drugs are given through a small catheter , through an IV, is threaded up into the neck and into the artery where there is a blockage. This treatment can potentially be used up to 6 hours after onset of stroke symptoms.  Hemorrhagic stroke  If the bleeding is due to a ruptured aneurysm, surgery should be done to repair the aneurysm. Repair may include:  a) Using a metal clip to clamp off the aneurysm to prevent renewed bleeding.  b) Endovascular coil embolization In this we Insert a small coil into the aneurysm to block it off .  c) In some cases, medicines may be given to control blood pressure, brain swelling,blood sugar level , fever, and seizures.  d) If a large amount of bleeding has occurred , surgery should be done in order to remove the clot from the brain and decrease the pressure inside it.  e) Changes in lifestyle will also be an important part of our treatment to reduce the risk of having another stroke:  PREVENTION OF STROKE  1)Smoking should be avoided  2)Alcohol should be limited  3)Weight should be under control  4)Exercise should be done. Walking is very beneficial  5) Eat balanced diet that is low in cholesterol, saturated fats, and salt  6) Treat high cholesterol with diet and exercise and then medication to reduce the risk of stroke  7) increase risk for stroke and may cause the formation of artery- narrowing plaque.  8) In people with certain irregular heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation the use of blood thinners such as warfarian has been shown to reduce the risk of stroke.  9) Diabetes should be under control.  10) Vision problems should be maintained  After a stroke, some people have problems seeing to one side. For example, people with right-sided paralysis may have difficulty seeing to the right. After a stroke some people have problems seeing to one side. For example, people with left-sided paralysis may have difficulty seeing to the left. If the problem is due to a loss of vision, most people learn to adjust by turning their head toward their affected side..

    Article publié pour la première fois le 01/10/2011

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    Rehabilitation and treatment strategy for stroke

    Stroke patient may experience very difficulties and barriers to recovery of normal activities . These can take the form of impairments directly caused by the stroke. There are number of different approaches to treatment for patients with stroke.

    These include

    * Bobath( or normal movement approach)

    * motor learning (or motor relearning or movement science)approach

    *brunnstrom approach

    * Rood approach

    *proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation

    * johnstone technique.

    Beside these techniques there are other general methods by which we can decrease the effects of stroke, these are as under:

    1) Spasticity

    Spasticity referred to as an unusual “tightness” of muscles referred to as an unusual “tightness” of muscles in which there is lack of inhibition from the CNS results in excessive contraction of the muscles, ultimately leading to hyperflexia( increase in reflexes). It can be reduced by neurological physiotherapy. Physiotherapy will use a combination of hands on treatment and exercise therapy to reduce spasticity…

    a) Use of ice to decrease spasm and pain.

    b) Stretching of muscles through range to relieve stiffness in the joint and surrounding tissues.

    c) Exercise to increase muscle strength and functional performance. This may include regular standing and weight bearing.

    d) Activity to improve range of movement.

    e) Correcting and varying joint position during activities.

    f) Hydrotherapy treatment to relieve muscle tension.

    2) Gait disorders

    It has been seen that treadmill training, particularly with partial(30-40%) body weight support may be effective in re-educating the patient in walking after stroke.

    3 )Biofeed back technique

    This provides a patient both auditory or visual feed back relating to movement or postures of their body or limbs. Feed back related to body positions for example weight distribution between the legs during standing or while rising to stand is beneficial.

    4) Foot drop

    Foot drop is inability to raise the foot at ankle joint.AFO”s (ankle foot orthoses) can be prescribed to patients with foot drop following stroke. It may help in maintaining ankle dorsi flexion , reducing spasticity and improves the patterns and safety of gait. Foot drop can also be treated by the use of braces. Exercise therapy to strengthen, that transfer tendons from stronger leg muscle is occasionally performed.

    5) Electrical stimulation

    In this there is bursts of electrical current to a muscle or a peripheral nerve, to create or assist a voluntary muscle contraction. It thus may improve muscle force, strength and function.

    6) Communication skills

    Aphasia an acquired impairment of cognitive system for comprehension and formulating language. symptoms such as communication deficit, affecting communication interaction, notably non-verbal communication occur following right hemisphere stroke. The role of speech and language therapist in aphasia include assessment, differentiation of aphasia from other communication difficulties ,advise and education, counselling and direct intervention

    Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder affecting clarity of speech, voice quality and volume and over all intelligibility. It may be associated with aphasia. Patient with dysarthria refered to the speech and language therapist.

    7) Nutrition and swallowing

    Careful assessment of nutritional status and swallowing impairment should be done. Fluid management and routine use of I/V fluids should be early management in stroke. Advise of dieticians should be sought.

    8) Urinary/faecal Continence

    Anti cholinergic drugs to treat urinary incontinence must be prescribed. Urinary catheter should be used. Indwelling catheter should be used to treat painful urinary retention without delay. once precipitating cause has removed patient care plan should include planned trial without catheter . Regular use of constipating agent and bowel care with enema.

    9) Pain

    Most commonly patient having musculoskeletal pain and involving the hemiplegics shoulder. Central post stroke pain(CPSP) is characterized by partial or that deficit for thermal/or sharpness sensations. Use of hi-lo Transcutaneous electrical stimulation may help patient. Positive relaxation as an adjuvant therapy should be used

    10) Shoulder hemiplegic pain

    This problem contributes to poor upper limb recovery, depression, sleeplessness following stroke. Careful handling of affected upper limb along with consistent supporting positioning strategies should be practiced. Electrical stimulation, physical therapy, ultrasound, strapping and support should be used in the management.


    11) Falls

    Falls are the common features of stroke. Therefore treatment include muscle strengthening and balance retraining programme. Withdrawal of psychotropic medication shows benefit in reducing falls.


    12) Pressure ulcer

    Pressure ulcers can be prevented by changing the position of the patient regularly, making use of water beds. Positioning of patient is helpful to prevent complications such as contractures, pain, abnormal tone.


    13) Depression and emotional liability

    Stroke patient with depression should be offered a use of treatment with anti depressant drug therapy.










    Article publié pour la première fois le 19/09/2016

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    Causes and Risk factors of Heat Stroke

    Heat stroke sometime also known as sun stroke , which is a spectrum of disorders due to environmental heat exposure. It includes minor conditions such as

    heat cramps,

    heat syncope, and

    heat exhaustion as well as the more severe condition known as

    heat stroke.

                                       Heat stroke is defined as when the body temperature is greater than 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) due to environmental heat exposure  it is different from fever, in which  there is a physiological increase in the temperature set point of the body.Heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia   an abnormally elevated body temperature. heat stroke is a true medical emergency that is often fatal if not properly and promptly treated.  Severe hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature of 104 F (40 C) or higher.


    A number of heat illnesses are there which are given as

    • Heat stroke – a body temperature of greater than 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) due to environmental heat exposure with lack of thermo regulation Symptoms include dry skin, rapid, strong pulse and dizziness.
    • Heat exhaustion –  Can be a precursor of heatstroke; the symptoms include heavy sweating, rapid breathing and a fast, weak pulse.
    • heat syncope
    • Heat edema
    • heat cramps–  which mainly include Muscle pains or spasms that happen during heavy exercise in hot weather.
    • Heat rash –  in which there is Skin irritation from excessive sweating.
    • Heat tetany – Usually results from short periods of stress in intense heat. Symptoms may include hyperventilation, respiratory problems, numbness or tingling, or muscle spasms.


    The body normally generates heat as a result of metabolism, and is usually able to dissipate the heat by radiation of heat through the skin or by evaporation of sweat. However, in extreme heat, high humidity, or vigorous physical exertion under the sun, the body may not be able to dissipate the heat and the body temperature rises, sometimes up to 106 F (41.1 C) or higher.

    dehydration-. A dehydrated person may not be able to sweat fast enough to dissipate heat, which causes the body temperature to rise.

    Substances that inhibit cooling such as  alcohol, caffeine, stimulants,  medications, and age-related physiological changes predispose to heat stroke. Exertional heat stroke can  occur most commonly  in young people without health problems or medications, most often in athletes and military  people.

                                    Risk factors of heat stroke

    The most  important risk factors  of heat stroke include:

    • infants,
    • the elderly people often associated  with heart diseases  lung diseases, kidney diseases, or who are taking medications that  can cause dehydration and heat stroke
    • athletes,
    • individuals who work outside and physically exert themselves under the sun.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 03/10/2011

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    Amitriptyline Side Effects in Children

    Anybody who intends to go for antitriptyline in order to cure depression must consult a doctor beforehand. Children and adolescents are especially informed that they must seek a doctor’s permission and only and if only the doctor allows, then they must use the drug. The drug, however, must not be given to children under twelve years of age because it could have disastrous reaction on the child’s mental and physical health.

    The drug has same side effects on children as it has on adults but these adverse side effects could be unbearable for young children because of their fragile immune system. The conditions of children who consume antidepressants such as this one have deteriorating health conditions as compared to those children who do not take drugs to cure depression. Recent research has revealed that children who take in this drug have a higher chance of developing psychological disorders. Still today, many researchers are still unsure whether children should be prescribed this drug or not. In most cases they agree that children below eighteen must be treated via other techniques but some others still consider amitriptyline prescription for children if the cure via other means does not seem a possibility.

    The side effects of amitriptyline in children include reduced muscular condition, inability to speak and express properly. It could also cause serious allergic reactions in children. They will often feel dizzy and at times might fall suddenly which could be threatening. Children are delicate and thus their immune system is also weak. The drug has queer reactions on adults. Children could have such reactions too. Photosensitization, jaundice and blood disorders are also possibilities in young children. Less frequent urination and an over active hyperthyroid, resulting in stunted bodily growth are other major side effects of amitriptyline in children. Children may become even more depressive and less responsive or even emotionally detached altogether. Liver dysfunctioning, anemia and constipation are also some of the fatal side effects for children. Their heart pressure might increase to an enormous degree and even their blood sugar levels so as to jeopardize their life altogether. Children might feel extremely weak and pale or on the other hand, they may gain excessive weight.

    Moreover, children who become habitual of taking amitriptyline may grow up to have many sexual disorders. The drug has withdrawal symptoms and the side effects prevail long after discontinuation. The drug user, as he or she grows might experience reduced pleasure, breast enlargement, hormonal imbalance due to the hyperactive thyroid and a deformed body structure, not literally but obliquely. These children might forever remain detached emotionally and also become serious psychotic cases. The drug also results in hair loss at timed due to intense tiredness and weakness. The concentration from studies is affected. The child may not be able to fit into society at all.

    It is also mentioned on the prescription that the drug must be kept away from children. Even a little dosage could be harmful for them. Therefore, it is suggestive of the damages that could be incurred to a child when the drug is consumed.



    Article publié pour la première fois le 09/07/2011

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    Amitriptyline Side Effects in Men

    With the raid changes taking place in the world, diseases and disorders are on the rise. Depression is one psychological disorder that has taken its toll, engulfing nearly every man around the world. The increasing recession, war on terror and other daily life issues are frustrating people and thus taking them towards depression. Relaxation has vanished into thin air. In order to cure depression, various antidepressant drugs have been introduced. One such drug used to cure this disorder is called amitriptyline.

    Amitriptyline is an antidepressant drug used to treat depression and other chronic pain. It affects the neurotransmitters and in turn helps to cope with the daily surmounting stressors. Amitriptyline is being considered by researchers to check whether the drug has similar effects on both men and women. They are investigating the varying side effects and have not found much difference in its gender response. The drug seems to have the same response on men and women but the only difference that has been found is that men are able to perform better under drug influence then women.

    The major side effects that are specific in males are the premature ejaculation in them. Their sexual displeasure becomes erratic and they tend to respond strangely in theor sexual experiences. Men are recommended to lower their work load while under the drug influence because they might fall or faint due to the weaknesses that the drug induces. Other common side effects found in men are low suicidal tendencies compared to women. They try and successfully regulate their erratic mood swings. Men also tend to feel palpitations, tremors and weak muscular coordination. Their responses might also get delayed or very slow. Other side effects of the drug include mouth dryness and chest pain. Men might also have trouble putting up with the hormonal imbalances due to abrupt changes in the thyroid’s workings. Amitriptyline also causes breast enlargement in men which could cause body deformity in them. Irritation and numbness are also present in them. At times their irritation might increase so much that other family members will have to work a lot on their patience level. Men who consume alcohol and other similar beverages could even experience reduced reactions of the drug for their senses are already dulled. The drug might also incur delirium and other memory related disorders in men. They might stop urinating and could also sometimes in serious cases, have a heart attack. Men are more prone to heart attacks then women.

    The researches have not found many differences in men and women. The drug seems to have almost the same effects on both genders. Though still researches are being done to see if the findings have changed and the result seems to have changed only a slight ignorable percent. Men and women both undergo similar side effects. Side effects of amitriptyline also depend on the strength of the person and also the kind of depression. If depression is chronic or not and if the person is able to cope with it or not. Men are generally able to cope well with the side effects of amitriptyline.


    Article publié pour la première fois le 13/09/2016

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    Symptoms of stroke

    Symptoms of stroke
    Symptoms of the stroke typically start suddenly, over seconds to minutes,. The symptoms  depend on the area of the brain affected. The more the area of brain affected, the more  functions that are likely to be lost. Some forms of stroke can cause additional symptoms. For  example, in intracranial hemorrhage, the affected area may compress other structures. Most  forms of stroke are not associated with headache, apart from subarachnoid hemorrhage and  cerebral venous thrombosis and occasionally intracerebral hemorrhage  . If the area of the brain affected contains one of the  these central nervous system pathways— spinothalamic tract  corticospinal tract, and dorsal column (medial lemniscus,  symptoms may include:  1) there will be hemeplegia and weakness of the muscles of face  2) there is feeling of numbness  3) there is decreased in sensation.  4) Firstly there is flaccidity (hypotonicity), replaced by spasticity (hypertonicity), followed by  In most cases, the symptoms affect only one side of  the body i.e. .unilateral . Depending on the part of the brain affected, the defect in the brain  is usually on the opposite side of the body.  Brain stem give rise to 12 cranial nerves, stroke affecting the brain stem and  brain therefore can produce symptoms relating to defect in these cranial nerves:  There is total or partial loss of smell, taste, hearing, or vision.  Ptosis is common i.e.drooping of eyelid and weakness of ocular muscles  There is decreased reflexes: swallow, pupil reactivity to light  decreased sensation and muscle weakness of the face  nystagmus and balance problem is common  altered breathing and heart rate  patient is notable to turn head to one side because of weakness in  sternocleidomastoid muscle  due to weakness in tongue muscles there is difficulty in protruding or move side  If the cerebral cortex is involved following  symptoms can be seen  aphasia (difficulty with verbal expression, auditory comprehension, reading and/or  writing Broca's or Wernicke's area is commonly involved)  dysarthria (difficulty in speech)  apraxia (altered voluntary movements)  visual disturbances  memory deficits due to the involvement of temporal lobe  hemineglect due to the involvement of parietal lobe  disorganized thinking, confusion, hypersexual gestures because there is involvement  anosognosia (persistent denial of the existence of a, usually stroke-related, deficit)  If the cerebellum is involved, the patient may have the following:  difficulty in walking  altered movement coordination  vertigo and or disequilibrium   Associated symptoms  There is loss of consciousness, headache, and vomiting usually occurs more often in  hemorrhagic stroke than in thrombosis because of the increased intracranial pressure from  the leaking blood compressing the brain.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 01/10/2011

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    Physical Properties of Asbestos

    Physical Properties of Asbestos
    Asbestos is a host of physical properties that make it almost a superstar in the world of industrial chemistry.
    Asbestos fibers(Chrysotile) are extremely thin, the unit fiber having an average diameter of approximately 25 nanometers (nm) (0.025 :m).Asbestos fibers used in most industrial applications consist of aggregates of smaller units (fibrils).Diameters of fiber bundles in bulk industrial samples may be in the millimeter range in some cases;
    Properties of Asbestos:
    • More tensile strength than steel.
    • High thermal stability.
    • Electrical resistance.
    • Non-flammable.
    • Has no detectable smell or taste.
    • They are all solids that do not move through soil and are insoluble in water.
    • Its color will vary according to type, and metallic composition.
    • Flexible so that it can be spun and woven like cotton.
    Engineering Properties of asbestos :
    • Asbestos when added to plaster makes it more resistant to breaking.
    • Asbestos adhering to structural steel insulates it from heat.
    • Asbestos incorporated into textiles makes them less likely to burn.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 22/07/2013

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    Risk factors of stroke

    Risk factors of stroke  Certain factors that increase risk of stroke include…  1) Family history of stroke, heart attack or transient ischemic attack.  2) Older people  High cholesterol — cholesterol build up fatty deposits (plaque) on blood  vessel walls. The deposits can block blood flow to the brain, causing a stroke. Diet, exercise, and family history affect blood cholesterol levels.  4) high blood pressure is the most important risk factor for stroke. High BP damage blood vessels called arteries that supply blood to the brain. Stroke is more common in men than women. Blacks are more likely to have strokes than are people of other races.  5) Cigarette smoking  6) Diabetes increases the risk of stroke . Diabetes is a condition that causes blood  to build up too much sugar instead of delivering it to body tissues. High blood sugar tends to  occur with high blood pressure and high cholesterol.  8) Physical inactivity.  9 ) Cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, a heart defect, heart  infection, or abnormal heart rhythm. can increase risk for stroke . heart valve defects,  irregular heartbeat (including atrial fibrillation), and enlarged heart chambers, can cause blood clots that may break loose and cause a stroke.  10) Use of birth control pills or hormone therapies that include estrogen.  11) Heavy drinking.  12) Use of drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamines.  13) sickle cell disease. This is a blood disorder that is associated with ischemic stroke,. A stroke can happen if sickle cells get stuck in a blood vessel and clog blood flow to the brain.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 01/10/2011

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    Satellite Direct TV

    Watching satellite is something that people would want to do from past to now. Through watching the satellite TV, people would usually be able to understand more about other parts of the world. In other words, you would be able to enjoy many entertainments if you try to watch the satellite TV.

    There are many things that you can do in order to watch the Satellite TV. You can try to use the traditional way of watching satellite TV. But it is more popular for people o use Satellite Direct TV or other new methods for enjoying the programs.

    Compared with the traditional ways, the new methods of watching Satellite Direct TV would contain more benefits.

    First of all, the choice of channels would be more. In other words, you will easily find that there are more channels for you to enjoy. Some of the people have calculated that there could be more than 3500 channels available for you to enjoy anytime when you have the appropriate satellite Direct TV. If you want to choose the best programs, you are advised to use Satellite Direct TV because there would be many choices for you to enjoy.

    Secondly, you can find that the cost of using the Satellite Direct TV to enjoy television programs would be cheaper than the traditional way. You would not need to purchase a lot of hardware products. Instead, you just need to obtain the license and then you would be able to install the relevant software in order to enjoy the programs.

    The resolution of the television programs from the satellite tv programs would be quite high. In the past, there were some questions about the quality of those programs as some people found that the poor quality would hinder them from enjoying the program. But the situation has changed in recent years due to the advancement of information technology and the improvement in the recording technology of television programs. Therefore, you can find that it is easier for people to transfer the signals related to those high quality television programs to audience and audience can therefore enjoy the great programs better.

    Last but not least, you can find that it is convenient for you to set up the channels for watching satellite TV in the new way than in the traditional way. It is because there would not be some antenna that you need to set up for receiving the satellite signals which would be required for the traditional way of broadcasting.

    To conclude, you will love enjoying satellite Direct TV because of the convenience and the attractive offerings. You will find that it is able for you to pay a smaller amount of money than the traditional way but you can enjoy more channels than the traditional way. Therefore, it is definitely wonderful for you to learn more about this kind of TV first and then select the most reliable one to participate. You can find the relevant information in the internet now so you should do your homework.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 21/07/2011

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    Long term effects of whip lash injury

    Long term effects of whip lash injury

    A whiplash injury is a non medical term , commonly seen when the neck is thrown violently forward or backward which occur most often during car accidents. When the body is suddenly slammed backwards,( during car accident) the muscles in the neck, shoulders and back are put into so much impact and pressure that makes the patient available to whiplash injury and due to which there is difficulty in performing their day to day activities. Even in a slow speed car accident there is a good chance that the neck will be thrown forward or backward at a rate of speed or with a force that is outside the range of normal. whiplash injury can be limited to a soft tissue injury, it can also cause much more severe and long lasting effects. The long-term effects of whiplash include neck and shoulder strains, difficulty in movement, and pain when bending the head down. Sometime people also experience back aches, and random headaches. Whiplash also affect certain parts of the brain and affect the memory of the person. many times in whiplash injuries the tendons, ligaments and muscles of the neck are affected. This can cause soreness and stiffness for days or weeks following the accident. In some cases the spine itself is damages in the accident. the spine can suffer damages to the disc material found between the bones. This can result in a herniated disc – often known as a “slipped” disc or “bulging” disc. When a disc bulges out it can push on the tendons and nerves found inn the spinal column. If a disc begins to push on a nerve it can cause sever pain in your arms, hands and fingers, loss of feeling in your fingers, tingling and eventually lose strength in the arm and hand.Strain in the neck and shoulder and limited or no mobility are also most common long term outcome of whiplash.Another long term outcome of whiplash are certain brain injuries in which memory retention will be affected or even get worse.Permanent headaches and backaches are also caused by whiplash, and these conditions can sometimes prevent the person from doing work or certain activities.
    Specific neck exercises can help the person in the treatment of whiplash and can speed up recovery. These neck exercises strengthen the muscles and tissues in the neck and the shoulders. These exercises promote better posture and improved neck muscles. whiplash incidents can also overcome by making some modifications in car seat and overall road safety.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 07/08/2012

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    Left hemispheric stroke

            Left hemispheric stroke

    stroke occurs when blood supply is intrrupted to the brain. This is caused by a blood clot blocking a vessel in our brain, or a torn vessel bleeding into our brain. The left side (hemisphere) of our brain controls the right side of your body. It also controls our speech and language abilities. After a left hemispheric stroke, we may have trouble in  talking, swallowing, or walking. we become more slowly and our memory may be worse than before the stroke. A left-hemisphere stroke often causes paralysis of the right side of the body. This is known as right hemiplegia.

    Causes of left side stroke

    There are mainly two causes of stroke

     1)Ischemic stroke:   this mainly occurs when an artery to our brain gets blocked due to  plaque  in our artery. Plaque happens when fatty deposits and other things build up in an artery. It  can also get a blocked artery from a blood clot also. The clot can break loose from an artery somewhere else and travel to our brainstem. The clot may get stuck in a narrow blood vessel, stopping blood and oxygen from reaching our brain. This is called an ischemic stroke. Most strokes are ischemic strokes.

     2)Hemorrhagic stroke: A blood vessel may break and leak if a clot gets stuck in it, or the vessel wall is weak. Blood then flows out of the vessel and into brain tissue. This is called a hemorrhagic stroke

     Risk factors for left hemisphere stroke

    •  patient may be  55 years old or more than that..
    • Common in  woman  who  use birth control pills, or take  hormone replacement medicine after menopause.
    •  father or mother already had a stroke, or  had a low weight when we were born.
    • There is high blood pressure, or blood vessel or sickle cell disease that is not being treated.
    •  There may be atrial fibrillation, diabetes or other heart or blood vessel conditions.
                 Effects of left hemisphere stroke

                                             The effects of a left hemisphere stroke may include the following:

    •  There may be right-sided weakness (right hemiparesis) or paralysis (right hemiplegia) and sensory impairment.
    •  Difficulty in  speech and understanding language (aphasia)
    • visual problems are common , including  inability to see the right visual field of each eye (homonymous hemianopsia)
    • impaired ability to do math or to organize, reason, and analyze items
    • behavioral changes such as depression, cautiousness, and hesitancy are common
    • impaired ability to read, write, and learn new information.
    • memory problems are common
                 Treatment of left side stroke

                                       Treatment mainly depends  causes of stroke, and  signs and symptoms of the patient. we  need the following medicines:

    • Cholesterol medicine: This type of medicine is given to  decrease (lower) the amount of cholesterol (fat) in our blood.
    • Other medicines: You may need medicine to  treat diabetes or to prevent seizures. Medicine may be given to keep our blood pressure at a certain level if it is too high or too low.

                                                                        If  stroke was caused by a blood clot, you may also need the following medicines:

    • Thrombolytics: This medicine is given to break  blood clots and help blood flow more easily.
    • Aspirin: This is medicine that may be given to help thin the blood to keep blood clots from forming.
    • Antiplatelets: This medicine is given to prevent formation of blood clots
                                                    Other treatment include
    • Ventilator: A ventilator is a special machine that can breathe for us, if  we cannot breathe  we may have an endotracheal tube (ET tube) in our mouth or nose. A tube called a trach may go into an incision (cut) in the front of our neck. The ET tube or trach is hooked to the ventilator. The ventilator can also give oxygen
    • Surgery:
      • Ventriculostomy: If  there is  too much fluid and swelling around  brain, a tube may be placed through skull to drain the fluid. This tube also checks the pressure in  brain.
      • Craniotomy: If  stroke was caused by bleeding into brain tissue,  surgery  should be done to remove the blood or fix a damaged blood vessel.
          • Carotid endarterectomy: Blocked carotid arteries can cause poor blood flow to our brain. If our carotid arteries are blocked, surgery called carotid endarterectomy may be done. This surgery widens the arteries so that blood can flow through more easily.
          • Blood vessel filter: If we  are at high risk of getting a clot in our leg (DVT) we  may need to have a filter device placed in our blood vessel. This is called an inferior vena cava filter.Go to your rehabilitation sessions:
          •                        Rehabilitation (rehab) is an exercise and activities program. Rehab can help to  return to our usual activities and prevent problems, such as muscle shortening (contractures) and  skin  breakdown (bedsores). Physical therapists may work  to strengthen arms, legs, and hands. They may help relearn or improve how  we walk (gait training). Occupational therapists may teach tthe  new ways to do daily activities, such as getting dressed. A speech therapist may help  in  relearn or improve our ability to talk and swallow
          •                                                   rehab program may include functional electrical stimulation that  help our muscles work better.  weight lifting to increase our strength.  exercises to improve our balance and movement to decrease risk of falling. Stretching exercises, riding a bike, or walking can also help to recove

    Article publié pour la première fois le 21/10/2011

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    Pathophysiology of Stroke

    Pathophysiology of Stroke

    Stroke, a neurologic  disorder due to altered cerebral circulation. It  is the third leading cause of death .  there are many risk factors for stroke include hypertension, family history, and diabetes mellitus. The sub types of stroke are ischemia, infarction, and hemorrhage. Ischemia and infarction are the result of atherosclerotic development of thrombi and emboli. Decreased or absent cerebral circulation causes neuronal cellular injury and death. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurs from rupture of cerebral vessels which is mainly due to hypertension.                               The two major mechanisms which are mainly responsible for brain damagein stroke are,



    The effects of ischemia are rapid because the brain does not store glucose(the chief energy substrate)

    and is incapable of anaerobic metabolism.A thrombus or an embolus can occlude a cerebral artery and

    cause ischemia in the affected vascular territory. Thrombosis of a vessel can result in artery-to-

    artery embolism.

                             Normal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is approximately 50-to 60 ml/100g/ Min and varies in
    different parts of the brain. when ischemia occurs, the cerebral auto regulatory mechanisms compensate for a
    reduction in CBF by local vasodilatation, opening the collaterals, and increasing the supply of oxygen and
     glucose from the blood.Formation of microscopic thrombi is responsible for impairment of micro circulation in
    cerebral arterioles and capillaries.Formation of a micro thrombus is triggered by ischemia-induced activation of
     destructive vasoactive enzymes that are released by endothelium, leucocytes, platelets and other neuronal cells.
    At a molecular level,   hypoxic- ischemic neuronal injury is greatly influenced by “overreaction" of certain
      neurotransmitters, primarily glutamate and aspartate. This process called “excitotoxicity”  and is triggered
    by depletion of cellular energy stores.Glutamate, which is normally stored inside the synaptic terminals,
    is cleared from the extracellular space by an energy dependent process.The greatly increased concentration of
    glutamate (and aspartate) in the extracellular space in a depleted energy state results in the opening of
     calcium channels associated with N-methy1-D-asapartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxanole
     propionate (AMPA) receptors. due to Persistent membrane depolarization causes influx of calcium, sodium,and
    chloride ions and efflux of potassium ions. In addition to contributing to mechanical obstruction of
    microcirculation,the leucocytes also activate vasoactive substances such as oxygen free radicals,
    arachidonic acid metabolites (cytokines), and nitric acid.
                                                         The cellular effects of these mediators include
    vasodilatation, vasoconstriction, increased permeability, increased platelets aggregation, increased
    leukocyte adherence to the endothelial wall, and immunoregulation. Morphologically, endothelial cells swell and
    form “microvilli” at the luminal surface of the cell. This results in a reduction in the luminal patency of the
    capillary vessel.Activation of endothelial adhesion molecules promotes leukocyte adherence to the endothelial
     wall, a key process in the initiation of the inflammatory process.
                                       Within an hour of hypoxic- ischemic ,there is a core of infarction
    surrounded by an oligemic zone called the ischemic penumbra (IP).The pathophysiology of IP is closely linked to
    generation of spontaneouswaves of depolarization (SWD). SWD can originate from multiple foci.  Sustained increases of
    synaptic glutamate and extracellular potassium ions are closely associated with the development of SWD.
    Glutamate receptor antagonists that block trans membrane calcium flux and prevent intracellular calcium
    accumulation are known to suppress SWD.  Hypoxic or rapid depolarizations eventually supervene just before
    irreversible neuronal death.The two processes by which injured neurons are known to die are
      a)coagulation necrosis   b) apoptosis.
                      Coagulation necrosis (CN) refers to a process in which individual cells die among living
    neighbor cells without eliciting an inflammatory response.
                     apoptosis is also called “programmed cell death”, because the cells are programmed to
     die in response to certain conditions.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 10/10/2011

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    physiotherapy in case of spinal cord injuries

    Physiotherapists assist and treat patients with temporary or long-term physical injuries, movement disorders or disability, aiming to achieve the highest possible degree of recovery, activity, participation and quality of life . Physiotherapists are active  in the prevention of illness and injury and in the promotion of health. The initial process of evaluating the consequences of an internal injury in an individual is to ascertain the status of the respiratory system.There are lots of injuries that may affect other parts of the body system apart from the specific area the injury occurred. spinal cord injuries  are the injuries which may occur due to sporting activities or vehicular accidents. If there is a fracture of the lower lumbar, there may not be any direct effect of such injury on the breathing condition of the individual or the arms therefore the patient will readily be in good shape on the trunk and arm area in which normal aerobic activity may be carried out. However, if an injury affects the upper thoracic or the cervical area, it is likely to lead to respiratory impairment of the victim; it could further inhibit the patient’s arm function.

    spinal cord injury results in  unstable spine a case often leads to paraplegia. . The surgeon will work to stabilize the spine with the help of instruments as well as bone grafting. This process allows the victim to begin early rehabilitation without having to wait long for the healing of the spinal fractures. . The earliest management a procedure is to initiate a physiotherapy practice by monitoring the respiratory condition and to ensure that there is always movement of the areas that are unaffected. Also passive movement should be performed on the paralyzed parts of the body in order to improve as well as retain the range of motion of the body that will be necessary for later independent function.

    The physiotherapist will gradually make the patient assume more upright position by making the back of the bad upright. This recovery procedure must be as gradual as possible as quick and sudden getting up can force the blood pressure of the patient to drop suddenly.  As soon the patient learns to control the trunk in sitting as well as in wheel chair transfer, the patient should be taken to spinal cord injury specialist department

    other goals of physiotherapist while treating spinal cord injuries

    • Assessment of the respiratory ability of the patient
    • Teaching the patient the process for taking deep breath in order to fully expand the lungs
    • Making the patient cough to expectorate
    • If there is a paralysis of the lower abdomen, the patient should be encouraged to keep that area stable by stabilizing with arms in order to allow a propulsive cough
    • In cases of severe disability, the session would involve an external support for stability of the patient to aid the exit of air suddenly in coughing
    • Provision for cough assist machine may be used for cough provocation
    • For intensive care situation, there will be need for initial management in which a respiratory physiotherapy practice will also include a respiratory suction

    Article publié pour la première fois le 12/03/2012

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    Mesothelioma Facts

    Mesothelioma Facts

    • Mesothelioma is almost exclusively caused by asbestos exposure.
    • Majority of mesothelioma patients get exposed to asbestos during work(roughly 80%) and few people get exposed to asbestos from family members via clothing, skin and hair.
    • Most of the symptoms occur in last stages and patients gets diagnosed in later stages only. It is very tough to detect this cancer in early stages,but if found in early stages then the cure is possible. USA reports maximum number of Mesothelioma patients. About 2000-3000 patients are reported from USA and about 10000+ from worldwide.
    • The average age of a mesothelioma patient has historically been about 65 years old.
    • Not everyone who is exposed to asbestos will develop an asbestos-related disease.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 20/03/2013

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    Identifying Asbestos in Floor Tiles


    Identifying Asbestos in Floor Tiles 

    Asbestos is a natural mineral that has nano fibers that cause lung disease when inhaled. This has led to the banning of asbestos as a construction material since the 1980s. Before this, asbestos was a common material in the construction industry as it has a high heat resistant quality that makes it a perfect material for insulation purposes. Asbestos in floor tiles was very common and also a preferred choice in manufacturing and installation with many vinyl tiles using asbestos as a filler material before they are installed in the floors of many houses.
     Asbestos in floor tiles was also widely favored due to the insulation quality of the material. Due to the risk factor posed by asbestos fibers, you need to identify the material in your home so that you can safely dispose of it and make sure that you and your family are safe from any health hazards that are presented by these fibers. The first place to start is by identifying asbestos in floor tiles. This is not as easy as it sounds and to be able to identify asbestos beyond doubt you need to conduct a test in a specialized laboratory.

    There are however obvious ways to identify asbestos in floor tiles in your house. To be able to identify asbestos in floor tiles, you need to first of all know the types of tiles that have asbestos in them. One of the tiles that will contain asbestos is the asphalt asbestos tiles. The name is the first indicator that the tiles contain asbestos fibers in them. These tiles were very popular in the U.S from 1920s to the 1960s.

    The first production of these tiles saw them come out with dark colors as more asphalt was used than asbestos fibers. They are still found today and if you want to identify asbestos in floor tiles, take a look at your floor tiles and confirm whether they are asphalt asbestos tiles. The second category of tiles that contain asbestos is the vinyl tiles that were featured in the late 1950s.
    These tiles were laid in the same format as asphalt asbestos tiles. They normally feature a black and white color scheme and they are based on vinyl materials and asbestos was used as a filler agent. This asbestos in floor tiles can sometimes become loose and release fibers in the air where they pose a danger to the respiratory system of people within that vicinity.
    Asbestos in floor tiles represents a great health risk to people but when they are intact and in good condition, they are non-friable and do not affect people. However due to wear and tear factors make the asbestos weak to a point where they can be dislodged and released in the air where they become friable. Any material that contains asbestos and can be crushed with normal hand pressure is friable hence very dangerous to the health of humans. Flooring which can be crumbled with normal hand pressure should therefore be treated with suspicion until it is proven to be safe.

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    Achieve Asbestos Control

    How To Achieve Asbestos Control

    Asbestos was commonly used I buildings and homes during the 29th Century, however in the late 70s, it was discovered that people who were exposed to asbestos were susceptible to respiratory problems which included lung cancer and lung plaques. Any building which contained asbestos in its structure since then was demolished and the asbestos material was removed.
    This was a way of asbestos control which is not as effective because particles can escape into the air and contaminate the environment. Today the general rule of asbestos control is to make sure that the asbestos is not disturbed at all when the demolition procedure is being undertaken. Ways that do not disturb the asbestos during its removal have been devised and they are proven methods of safely disposing the contaminant.
    The methods of asbestos control that are be used to reduce the risk of contaminating the surrounding environment and do not require the material to be removed before the building is demolished are the most effective ones.
    One of these asbestos control methods is wetting the asbestos before demolishing the building. This will minimize the quantity of harmful asbestos fibers that are released into the environment and according to the Health and Safety executives a wetting agent such as water will be very useful in containing the asbestos. However, while wetting the asbestos use a light spray of water or a roller as a concentrated and forceful spray will disturb the asbestos particles and result in the facilitating the release of the harmful substance into the atmosphere. These equipments should then be disposed of when you are done with the task.
    Another effective asbestos control method protecting water tanks in buildings with earthen berms. These berms are raised mounds of earth that are located outside the exterior walls of a house and they are susceptible to asbestos control. To protect water tanks from asbestos contamination, protect them with earthen berms when demolishing the building as they cannot be damaged during the demolition exercise and therefore reduce the risk of having asbestos contaminate the surroundings. You can also wrap the asbestos in air tight plastic containers that will ensure the harmful microfibers from the asbestos do not escape into the air. This is a great asbestos control method as once you cover all the areas there is no chance of contamination.
    Tameside Council suggested that asbestos should be wrapped in a double layer of thick, heavy duty plastic materials and then sealed in tape to achieve maximum asbestos control. There are other asbestos control methods that do not necessitate the complete demolition of a house. These methods rely on first identifying where the asbestos is located and the taking precautionary measures to ensure that the asbestos fibers are not released into the air. To be able to do this effectively, you will need to know where the asbestos is located.
    Some of the common places that asbestos was used were fire blankets, garage doors and shed roofs, boilers and innings for walls, ceilings and doors. To be able to effectively control asbestos in these areas, prime the asbestos with alkali resistant primer and then paint over the area with gloss paint, however, do not sand or scrape the area as this will dislodge asbestos fibers. This is a common way of asbestos control that ensures the asbestos does not contaminate your home or office without the need of complete demolition of the house.

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    What is Cancer

    What is Cancer

    Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by ‘out of control’ cell
    growth.The word cancer means “CRAB”,thus reflecting the true character of
    cancer since it sticks to the part stubbornly like a ‘CRAB’,therefore it is a
    mass of tissue formed as a result of ABNORMAL,EXCESSIVE,UNCOORDINATED,AUTONOMO
    US and PURPOSELESS proliferation of cells.
    When tissue sucessfully spreads the other
    parts of body and grows,destroying the healthy tissues it is said to be
    metastasized and process is called “METASTASIS”.


    Cancer is ultimately growth of cells that uncontrollably grow.Program
    med cell death is called as “APOPTOSIS”and when it breaks,cancer begins to
    form.It also occurs when cell genes mutate make the cell unable to correct
    DNA damage and unable to commit suicide.It is a result of mutations that
    inhibit ‘ONCOGENE’ and ‘TUMOUR SUPRESSOR GENE FXN’leading to uncontrollable
    cell growth.Cancer also occur as a result of ‘GENETIC PREDISPOSITION’that is
    inherited from family members.There are class of substances that are
    responsible for damaging DNA are known to be “CARCINOGENS”.When body get
    exposed to these carcinogens free radicals are formed,these radicals damage
    cells and affect their ability to fxn normally.




      cancer can be classified into five types.”CARCINOMAS”-these tumours mainly covers the internal and external parts likeLUNGS,BREAST and COLON.”SARCOMAS”-These are located in BONES,CARTILAGE,FAT,CONNECTIVE TISSUE and MUSCLES.”LYMPHOMAS”-These tumours begin from LYMPH NODES.”LEUKEMIAS”-These tumours are commonly found in BOMEMARROW.”ADENOMAS”-they arise from THYROID,PITUTARY GLAND,ADRENALGLAND and GLANDULAR GLAND.TREATMENT OF CANCER;        cancer can be treated by various methods.’SURGERY’is commonly performed.In this complete care should be done by surgical removal of cancer from the body part is to be done.’RADIO-THERAPY also plays an important role.In this high energy rays destroy the cancer cells.sometime ‘CHEMOTHERAPY’ give benefit to the patient in which we utilize chemicals that interfere cell division process.’IMMUNOTHERAPY’ aimsto get body immune system to fight the tumours.’HORMONE THERAPY’has been designed to alter hormone production in body so that cancer stop growing orkilled completely.’GENE THERAPY’is oftenly used.PREVENTION OF CANCER;          In order to prevent ORAL CANCER choosing not to smoke tobacco or drink alcohal.SKIN CANCER can be prevented by staying in shade,wear hat,sun glasses or using sun screens.Diet low in fats and rich in fresh fruits and vegetables should be taken.certain VACCINATIONS should be taken against viruses that will cause cancer.


    Cancer can be treated by various methods.
    ‘SURGERY’is commonly performed.In this complete care should be
    done by surgical removal of cancer from the body part is to be done.’RADIO-
    THERAPY also plays an important role.In this high energy rays destroy the
    cancer cells.sometime ‘CHEMOTHERAPY’ give benefit to the patient in which we
    utilize chemicals that interfere cell division process.’IMMUNOTHERAPY’ aims
    to get body immune system to fight the tumours.’HORMONE THERAPY’has been
    designed to alter hormone production in body so that cancer stop growing or
    killed completely.’GENE THERAPY’is oftenly used.


    In order to prevent ORAL CANCER choosing not to smoke tobacco or
    drink alcohol. SKIN CANCER can be prevented by staying in shade,wear hat,
    sun glasses or using sun screens.Diet low in fats and rich in fresh fruits
    and vegetables should be taken.certain VACCINATIONS should be taken against
    viruses that will cause cancer.


    It depends upon LOCATION and SIZE of tumour.
    ORAL CANCER -WHITE PATCHES are found inside the mouth or WHITE SPOTS on tongue
    IN LIVER-cancer interfere liver fxn and causes YELLOWING OF SKIN and EYES
    called “JAUNDICE”.
    BRAIN-when affects the brain it causes VERTIGO,HEADACHE and SEIZURES are seen.
    IN addition to these ENLARGED LYMPH NODES are common and likely
    to be present as earlier symptom.


    AGE:It is the important risk factor that causes age i
    increases no. of possible cancer causing mutation in our DNA.
    CANCER),HIV (weakens immune system and decrease body ability to fight against
    infection and increase chance of cancer).

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    Securing Cement Asbestos In Buildings

    Securing Cement Asbestos In Buildings

    Cement can be reinforced with fiber to make it stronger. This technique was invented in the late 19th century by an Austrian Ludwig Hatscheck where he mixed 90% cement with 10% asbestos fibers with water and then a cardboard machine was used to run the mixture. This is how cement asbestos was first made. This mixture was used as siding materials in houses due to its low production cost, water proof, light weight and fire resistant qualities. Also cement asbestos shingles were used to imitate wood siding in shape and appearance which were available as either twenty-four inches slides with either gray or green. However, after the harmful effects of asbestos were discovered in the early problems, cement asbestos was discontinued as a building material. Fibers from cement asbestos could be inhaled into the respiratory system and cause any number of respiratory illnesses that have been associated with cement asbestos. Therefore buildings with cement asbestos should either be demolished or have the offending material removed so that they can be fit for human occupation. 
    To remove cement asbestos in a safe and risk free process, there are guidelines that have to be observed by professionals and home owners alike.  First, identifying the source or where the asbestos is located is key to removing the fibers. This involves searching where the asbestos are likely to have been used in buildings. Look at places like water fittings, the plaster on the walls and also shingles are the first places to search. After you have identified the cement asbestos make sure that you water it down before you begin the removal process. By using water, you make sure that the fibers are strongly held down so that the exercise of removing the asbestos does not free the particles or fibers that can be inhaled and cause respiratory complications. The next step after this is to free the cement asbestos materials. In this process, ensure that you also do not disturb the fibers. You should not scrap the surface as this will crush the cementasbestos into fine powder that can easily get into the respiratory system. Gently remove the contaminated area and put it inside an air proof plastic bag for disposal. If the material cannot be removed, you can alternatively use a PVC plastic cover to shield off the cementasbestos from the atmosphere. Two to three layers should be used so as to make sure that the asbestos is well contained. Painting over the asbestos is also a good way to shield it from the atmosphere and minimize the chances of the fibers being released into the atmosphere.
     Remember that cementasbestos only becomes friable after its integrity has been compromised. This means that the asbestos will only become a health hazard if fibers are disturbed in such a way as to make them loose and thus spread through the air. So make sure that the asbestos in your home is either fully removed or if you keep it, make sure that it is not disturbed in any way. By following these guidelines, you will have a safe environment that does not present any health risks to you and your family.

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    Types of Mesothelioma

    Various Types of Mesothelioma

    Do you know about mesothelioma? This is a very dangerous disease and it is related to lungs. It is divided into two groups and these both groups are very important. The first group is benign mesothelioma and the second important group is malignant.

    The symptoms of these two groups are very similar to each other and it is very difficult to distinguish between them. Only an expert and experienced doctor can distinguish between the symptoms of these two groups. Therefore we should always prefer only experienced and efficient doctor to avoid any further problem in future. The most important factor is that how to identify this disease? The identification of this disease is not easy because its symptoms are very complicated. So the common person cannot identify the symptoms of this disease.

    The disease is related to the lungs so that you can identify this disease after the process of X-Ray scans of your lungs. Similarly there are many other symptoms of benign mesothelioma but the most important are the chest pain, cough and the fever is also most important indication of this disease. However the presence of the clubbed finger is also an important symptom of this disease. The clubbed finger always appears when the oxygen level of blood reduces or fall. The treatment of benign mesothelioma is easy than the malignant. In the treatment of the benign the tumors are removed surgically. Therefore it is reported by the doctors and surgeons that the treatment of the benign is easy than malignant.

    The benign mesothelioma some time develops into the malignant form. Therefore the doctors advise to have X-Ray of lungs regularly so that you can identify the disease. This type of regular checkup is very necessary because it can prevent from many types of disorders. Therefore you should meet with doctor to have a complete medical checkup. The malignant mesothelioma is further classified into many types based upon the location of the tumor.
    The most important is the pleural mesothelioma and it is related to cavity of lungs. This is the most common type of mesothelioma cancer and its symptom includes the chest pain and cough. Some time it creates the difficulty in the process of breathing. Similarly the fever is also the most important symptom of this disease. Similarly the other most important type of mesothelioma is the peritoneal mesothelioma.
    This type of mesothelioma always appears in the stomach of the patient. This type of cancer usually originates from the abdomen and after some time it spreads to other parts. The symptoms include the pain in the abdomen and many others. In some cases the loss of appetite occurs due to this disease. Similarly some time the problem in breathing process also occurs. Another type of mesothelioma is the pericardial mesothelioma. It affects the cavity of heart and its symptoms include the pain, shortness of breath and many other types of symptoms. The treatment of different types of mesothelioma is different. The most important type of treatments includes the surgery, chemotherapy and the use of radiations.

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    what is carcinogen

    What is a carcinogen?
    So what is carcinogen and how it induces cancer. Cancer is caused by mutations in cells.These alterations can be inherited from parents and can happen due to exposure to many environmental things. These may include factors like lifestyle (diet, physical exercise ), cigerette smoking, exposure to various radiations, pollution.
    These elements are called as carcinogens and they change human body cells.
    Not all Carcinogens  will cause cancer. Substances labeled as carcinogens may have different levels of cancer-causing potential.There are many factors which are involved here. Like how much was the exposure, how long some one was exposed to Carcinogens, and how intense it was. This also varies as per persons and their genetic makeup.
    Many Chemicals and products  are capable of inducing cancer in humans or animals after prolonged or excessive exposure. These chemicals are known as carcinogens , which are responsible for inducing cancer.For example :fumes of the metals cadmium, chromium and nickelare known to cause lung cancer.
    Sometimes,it takes long period to develop cancers, for instance in case of chemically induced cancers, or mesothelioma due to exposure to asbestos. Sometimes, it takes as much as 30 years to be observed.
    In simple terms, Carcinogen can also be defined as any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer.
    The term carcinogen defines any substance , which can be chemical  or mixture of chemical substance, or radiations, that can induce cancer in human body. Or even can increase its incidence.
    One exmaples of carcinogen may include asbestos, prolonged exposure of which may cause lung lining cancer,
    Now what is carcinogenicity?
    Carcinogenicity is the ability or tendency of substance to produce cancer.

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    Asbestos Cement sheets

    Asbestos was mined in many countries and it was too late when the health institutions in many countries discovered that contrary to the name ?miracle mineral?

    it was in real sense a killer mineral that had been a death spell claiming millions of lives. A lot of cases have been filed over the years against those accused of being responsible for causing countless death incidence and health conditions by working in asbestos mines and mills. In the USA alone, there is an estimate of over $250 billion total cost of the litigations on every material related to asbestos cement sheet. There was a wide use of this mineral in the construction industries of the world and with fantastic properties such as durability, flexibility as well as resistant to chemicals. However in deciding if the use of a particular material should be legalized for use or not depended on comparing its pros and cons and in the case.


    According to the Institute of Medicine, inhalation of the fibers of this mineral is capable of sparking off a type of cancer called mesothelioma which has proven to be the root cause of death of nearly 150,000 people in America in 1999 alone!  The Institute went as far as recommending it as the worst kind of epidemic Issues arising from asbestos victims and their families have been in the USA federal court houses and the court houses are shocked by the large number of cases which are in the range of hundreds of thousands. The more case for worry by the court is the number of such cases that will be witnessed in the feature because of the long period it takes to diagnose an asbestos related problem. In reaction to these rising issue, the Fairness of Asbestos Compensation Act was brought out in 1999 to be used to ascertain if the many plaintiffs filling law suits were truly suffering from conditions related the mineral


    The History of Asbestos Cement Sheet Usage The mineral Asbestos was called by the Greeks as the miracle mineral particularly due to the fact that it could withstand heat.  It is a silicate mineral possessing many qualities which made it an extremely important material in many industries. However lately all the news about the use of this mineral is negative.


    The serpentine family of this mineral includes the chrysotile which happens to be the most generally used form. As a result of its fantastic feature, asbestos cement sheet was generally used in the construction industry until it was banned in the 1900s. It is not long ago that the dangerous effects arising from using this material was known to the public and it seems to have been known too late. By the time it was known to the authorities that this material was deadly, a number of innocent people had died from its poisoning. When the fibers from this mineral is inhaled it causes dangerous health hazards such as lung cancer and also asbestosis Since the heat resistant characteristic of asbestos cement sheet was discovered it has killed many millions of people.


    This mineral was mined in many countries and it was too late when the health institutions in many countries discovered that contrary to the name ?miracle mineral? it was in real sense a killer mineral that had been a death spell claiming millions of lives. A lot of cases have been filed over the years against those accused of being responsible for causing countless death incidence and health conditions by working in asbestos mines and mills. In the USA alone, there is an estimate of over $250 billion total cost of the litigations on every material related to asbestos cement sheet.

    There was a wide use of this mineral in the construction industries of the world and with fantastic properties such as durability, flexibility as well as resistant to chemicals. However in deciding if the use of a particular material should be legalized for use or not depended on comparing its pros and cons and in the case. According to the Institute of Medicine, inhalation of the fibers of this mineral is capable of sparking off a type of cancer called mesothelioma which has proven to be the root cause of death of nearly 150,000 people in America in 1999 alone!  The Institute went as far as recommending it as the worst kind of epidemic Issues arising from asbestos victims and their families have been in the USA federal court houses and the court houses are shocked by the large number of cases which are in the range of hundreds of thousands. The more case for worry by the court is the number of such cases that will be witnessed in the feature because of the long period it takes to diagnose an asbestos related problem. In reaction to these rising issue, the Fairness of Asbestos Compensation Act was brought out in 1999 to be used to ascertain if the many plaintiffs filling law suits were truly suffering from conditions related the mineral

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    Asbestos inhalation

    There are various special signs of asbestos inhalation. Some of the most common symptoms are discussed on below: Propinquity If you work in a competent that needed asbestos in production, you may be uncovered to it. This may be particularly right if you were close to win a portion of the construction were being constructed or flattened. Since there are some strict rules about the taking away from asbestos, data about job sites is obtained from the administration. To find data about a location where you can have been uncovered, visit the U.S. ecological defense organization website.


     Dry Cough The cough that is not made phlegm and is unrelenting may be a sign of pleural mesothelioma. A cancer found in the mainly of mesothelioma sufferers. Since mesothelioma takes more than 12 years to expand, a sufferer may not connect the sign with disclosure. If the coughs continue, visit to a doctor. If you neglect this, then you can be faced a serious condition.
    Weight Loss In both kinds of mesothelioma—the more general pleural mesothelioma and no more common periodical mesothelioma—sudden weight loss of up to 10 percent of body weight, also can be a symbol the disease is here. So, everyone should be careful about weight loss.
    Night Sweats Night sweat can happen for other causes than asbestos inhalation; in this state also is about its symptom. Awful sweating at nighttime that fall out in a flooded bed or wear can be a symbol you are anguishing from mesothelioma. Though, due to the Mayo hospital, in most states, night sweat is not related to solemn medical troubles.
    Chest Pain Since asbestos fibers remains in the lung for a lot of decades, an unexpected and then constant chest pain is a symptom. This hurt can increase to or be exact to the rib, too. Additionally, or in its place of specific hurt to a region, this can motive pain during inhalation. You need to conscious about this symptom.
    Early Symptom There generally are no early symptoms of asbestos inhalation. Upper body X-rays usually do not explain the fiber in the lung. A CT scan may expose the continuation of changes to the lung created by the attendance of asbestos fiber, but these are not occurring for several years. The variety of symptoms to happen generally begins about 15 to 50 years after contact. There are some other symptoms can be found. If you have faced any of above, then you need to contact with an experienced physician. You should not neglect any symptoms of asbestos inhalation.
    The Signs and Symptoms of Asbestos Inhalation Asbestos be used for a lot of decades to decrease the danger of fire in the building, mainly in factories. It had been used as siding on buildings. Asbestos is a stone either amphibole or chrysotile —that has long fiber. Similar to a lot of equipment are needed in the factory, the health belongings were not exposed for days. It can reason a cancer known mesothelioma.

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    Stroke medicine

       Stroke medicine

    Stroke medicine involves the management of all forms of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and   whole patient pathway( which include diagnosis, investigation, acute treatment, rehabilitation and re-integration, secondary prevention and long-term complications).  stroke isl the most common cause of severe and  acquired disability in adult life, therefore  new and emerging interventions can reduce the personal and societal impact of the condition. stroke is a  medical emergency,it can cause permanent damage to the nervous system  and If it is not promptly diagnosed  and treated, it may lead to death

    In the majority of patients blockage of an artery in the brain due to  clot (thrombosis) is the most common cause of a stroke. The part of the brain that is supplied by the clotted blood vessel is then deprived of blood and oxygen. As a result of the deprived blood and oxygen, the cells of that part of the brain die and the part of the body that it controls stops working. Typically, a cholesterol plaque in a small blood vessel within the brain that has gradually caused blood vessel narrowing ruptures and starts the process of forming a small blood clot.the stroke or TIA will be a manifestation of atherosclerotic disease, and coexisting conditions such as ischaemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia are common. However,  in younger patients, there may be  unusual causes of stroke such as arterial dissection, migraine, thrombophilic and vasculitic disorders.

    Drug therapy is a relatively recent approach to the treatment of stroke, that will minimize the effects of the stroke Much of the damage caused by a thrombotic or embolic stroke occurs in the first six hours. The development of new clot-dissolving drugs and medications  make the brain more resistant to stroke commonly called as neuroprotective agents. medications for the stroke include

    Antiplatelet medicines

    •   Aspirin is most often used to prevent TIAs and strokes.
    • Aspirin combined with dipyridamole is a safe and effective alternative to aspirin.
    •  clopidogrel may be used for people who cannot take aspirin.


    Anticogulants prevent   the formation of blood clots and keep existing blood clots from getting bigger. If there is atrial fibrillation,then we will  probably take an anticoagulant.


    statins lower cholesterol level. It can greatly reduce the risk of  stroke  in people who have had a TIA. Statins even protect against stroke in people who do not have heart disease  or high  cholesterol.


     blood pressure  medicines

    If  high blood pressure is there  then we have  to take medicines  that  lower it. Blood pressure medicines include:

    • .Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
    • . Angiotensin- converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitors
    • . Beta blockers
    • . Calcium channel blockers
    • . Diuretics

    Drugs that dissolve clots are known as thrombolytic agents.  if  these drugs should be given within the first few hours after stroke,  they minimize stroke damage.

    • Thrombolytic Agents (tissue plasminogen activator [tPA]), widely used to dissolve clots that cause heart attacks, are also effective for dissolving artery-blocking clots in the brain during the critical early stages of stroke. Early administration of tPA after a stroke can reduce neurological damage.
    • Neuroprotective Agents – Medications that make the brain less susceptible to the damaging effects of a stroke are called neuroprotective agents.


    Article publié pour la première fois le 21/10/2011

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    pathophysiology of jaundice

    pathophysiology of jaundice

    Jaundice, is characterized by yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes, as a result of an increase in bilirubin concentration (hyperbilirubinemia) and subsequent tissue

    deposition. .When red blood cells have completed their life span of approx. 120 days, and each red blood cell traverses through the reticuloendothelial system, as its cell membrane ruptures and become fragile and prone to rupture. Cellular contents, including hemoglobin, are subsequently released into the blood.

    The hemoglobin is phagocytosed by macrophages , and split into its heme and globin portions.The remainder comes from prematurely destroyed erythroid cells in the bone marrow and form hemoproteins such as myoglobin and cytochrome. Due to imbalance in bilrubin formation and clearance there results in Elevated serum bilirubin occurs. Elimination of bilirubin requires conversion to water-soluble conjugates by the hepatocytes through the action of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronyl transferase (glucuronidation) and secretion into the bile. Conjugated bilirubin, along with bile salts, is then excreted via the biliary system into the duodenum and deconjugated by bacterial enzymes in the terminal ileum and colon. Approximately 20% of deconjugated bilirubin (urobilinogen) is reabsorbed and re- excreted in bile. Unconjugated bilirubin is mostly bound to albumin and is not filtered by the kidney; conjugated bilirubin, however, may be filtered and reabsorbed in the kidney, with a small fraction excreted in the urine. A significant amount of conjugated bilirubin in the urine suggests cholestasis and hepatobiliary dysfunction. The majority of this bilirubin comes from the breakdown of heme from expired red blood cells.

    urobilinogen can take two pathways. It can either be further converted into stercobilinogen, which is then oxidized to stercobilin and passed out in the feces, or it can be reabsorbed by the intestinal cells, transported in the blood to the kidneys, and passed out in the urine as the oxidised product urobilin. Stercobilin and urobilin are the products responsible for the coloration of faeces and urine, respectively.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 16/09/2016

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    Satellite Direct Scam – What is it

    Some people complain that they could not watch the television programs that they want to watch after they have subscribed the programs like Satellite Direct TV. Well, they should understand that the programs should not be a scam and they actually should read the information carefully before they make the complaints.

    In some of the cases, people cannot watch the television programs because of the problems related to the computer configuration. Therefore, they can actually watch the programs as long as they adjust the configuration of the computer and make the broadcasting software work.

    You will find that Satellite Direct is not a scam. It is because there are many people who have posted comments and reviews about the wonderful programs provided by this method. They all love watching television programs in this way so that they would not need to pay a lot of money while enjoying a lot of television programs.

    No doubt, people would enjoy a lot of wonderful programs compared with the traditional satellite television programs. The number of channel that you can watch from the satellite television program would be over thousands but you might only watch dozens in the traditional way. Therefore, the cost for hiring the satellite Direct program would be worthwhile and it would not be very difficult for you to see the supporter for this kind of new program in recent years.

    The process for you to download the software to operate the Satellite Direct programs would be very simple and user-friendly. This is one of the misunderstandings that causes people think that it is a scam. Yes, some of the people would think that only scams would provide free downloadable programs for people to install. This is clearly not reasonable and it would not make sense. You can find that there are a lot of programs which can be downloaded in a free of charge manner and they are very helpful for you to have a wonderful experience in the computer operation. Therefore, it would not make sense if you think that satellite direct is a scam just because of the simple setup of the program installer.

    If you have tried to find the information related to Satellite Direct before, you probably understand that there are many real benefits that you can enjoy. These real benefits are recognized by many users and many people have succeeded in watching their favorite programs through the satellite TV and there would be no reason for people to say that this kind of program is a scam.

    To conclude, there is misunderstanding between some people because they might have some problems with their computer. Therefore, they can actually enjoy Satellite TV as long as they try their best to look for the relevant information related to it and correct the mistakes happened in their computer. It is not correct to say that Satellite Direct is a scam. Instead, it is a real product which can be used for watching the programs that people love enjoying.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 21/07/2011

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    Truth About Six Pack Abs- Overview

    There are many things that men would like to have more. One of the several things would include the abs. They would like to boost the abs so that they would become someone attractive to the women. Do you also want to have six pack abs at your abdomen? If you really want to have that, you should try to find some helps. Many people would want to have that kind of abs but not everybody would have it because there are actually some works that you have to do and if you do not find the guide book to help you, you probably cannot achieve that.

    One of the books that you can find help from would be Truth About Six Pack Abs. You would find that there are many benefits that you can get as long as you try your best to look for the relevant information from this book. There are many types of information covered in Truth About Six Pack Abs. First of all, you would find that nutritional information provided.

    Yes, the book of Truth About Six Pack Abs would tell you a lot about how you can do in an appropriate way to eat the right food. You need to bear in mind that you should try to eat something healthy. You usually need to do gym at the same time while you are trying your best to keep the diet healthy. If you do not keep your diet healthy, your efforts in doing the gym would not work actually.

    Another thing that you might find from the Truth About Six Pack Abs book would be the proper exercises that you can do. You would find that there is complete detail about the things that you can do. Yes, you will find that there is a list of the appropriate exercises that you can do to keep fit. You need to remember that the balanced diet as well as exercising would be equally important.

    Last but not least, you will find that there are a lot of pieces of information related to the way that you can use to cook the food. If you want to have abs, you probably need to take enough proteins and sufficient carbohydrates. But there should also be some vitamins that you need to take so as to keep the metabolism of your whole body functions. Therefore, you would find that it is important for you to use some cooking methods to make sure that the nutrients that you are going to take would be preserved in the cooking methods instead of being damaged. On the other hand, you should also follow the cooking methods so as not to add weight to your body. For example, you would find that deep frying would ruin your plan in the abs work.

    Therefore, you need to find the relevant information from Truth About Six Pack Abs and then work out your own plan such that you can eventually have the wonderful body shape.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 21/07/2011

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    How to Remove Asbestos on Pipes

    How to Remove Asbestos on Pipes

    For many years now health experts have advised people to stop using asbestos as it is considered to be harmful to health. Asbestos has been noted to lead to lung cancer, asbestosis, and cardiac arrest among others. The unfortunate thing about asbestos related illness is that they are yet to find a complete treatment. This means that if you are constantly being exposed to large quantities of asbestos over a long period of time, your chances of falling sick is quite high. It is for this very reason that this article is intended to equip you with the knowledge of how to remove asbestos on pipes.

    This does not mean that the pipe itself has asbestos but rather the insulation on it. The removal of asbestos on pipes requires careful and cautious extraction. However hiring a professional is far much considered than doing it all by yourself, nevertheless if you follow the following instruction strictly, then you can also remove asbestos on pipes all by yourself. The process is rather challenging but the reward is pretty good. First and foremost when removing asbestos on pipes, ensure that you have in your possession a HEPA respirator, eye protection, disposable overalls, rubber gloves and boots. These will be able to protect you from direct exposure to asbestos. In addition to that, you are required to have a tank sprayer of approximately 2-3 gallons, a liquid dish detergent, 8-inch knives for removing the asbestos and a waste disposal bag for disposing the asbestos. After ensuring that you have all the necessary precaution materials, when removing asbestos on pipes ensure that you first of all remove all the furniture and shut off any windows or ventilation points. You should also turn off the electric power. By doing these things, you will be helping to minimize the exposure and contamination of asbestos. Secondly, attach a plastic sheet on top of the asbestos on pipes with a duct tape. After that build an air lock between the area that you have contained and other parts of your house, this will make it easier for workers to get out of their containment overalls without having them spread the asbestos on other parts of the house. Then you can mix few drops of the detergent that you had into the tank sprayer and soak off the asbestos.

    Wait for about 30 minutes then scrap off some of the asbestos to check for any saturation. Last but not least, during the final stages of removing asbestos on pipes, seal the containment bag that contains the asbestos with duct tape. Then mark all the bags or papers containing the asbestos. Ensure you place the bags at the exit to reduce containment if any. After you have done all the aforementioned instructions, spray yourself and the containment area to remove any residue of the asbestos. After that ensure that you remove everything that you were wearing during the process and dispose of them. One thing to note, if you are unable to remove asbestos on pipes all by yourself just consult a expert to make things easier for you.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 24/10/2013

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    Jaundice Treatment

    The treatment of jaundice normally depends on the underlying problem that lead to the symptoms in the first place. When the diagnosis of the problem has been made, then the treatment of the problem can begin. Sometime the patient can be required to be hospitalized or he can take the medicine home.

    The treatment can be watchful waiting in your home with totally rest.  The doctor can choose to give intravenous fluids, medication, blood transfusion and antibiotics. If the cause is any toxin or any drug, then it has to be stopped immediately.

    Sometime surgical treatment can be needed. According to the underlying problem, in addition of the IV fluids, antibiotics or blood transfusion, the patient may need to get additional medicine for vomiting, nausea or pain. The patient may need also to be treated by radiation, chemotherapy and the phototherapy for the new baby born.

    In addition, of the medical attention found in the hospital, the patient also has to take care of himself at home. Additional care at home can be the following. You have to make sure that you keep hydrated by drinking enough fluids. Take the medicines as the doctor has instructed. Do not use any additional herb and supplements which you do not know their side effects. You should never take alcohol until the doctor tells that it is alright. The doctor may recommend to keep away from certain foods. If it is a new baby born, then you can be asked to place the child near a well lit place.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 07/08/2011

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    Jaundice Symptoms

    Sometime the person who is suffering from jaundice can have other underlying diseases, condition or even disorders.  People who are suffering with jaundice will also show the symptoms that are identified with these other diseases.

    In adults, adolescent, and children, the following are symptoms that will accompany the jaundice. The person can begin by having brown or dark urine, abdominal pain, symptoms that can be confused as flu symptoms such as cough, pains, aches or headaches. The person can also begin to suffer itchy skin, generally feeling of being ill or malaise. The person can begin to suffer nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. The stool can begin to be clay-colored or pale. The person can suffer poor appetite, some unexplained weight loss and to feel weak.

    Even if the above are symptoms that can show that someone has the jaundice, there are some symptoms that can show that someone is in a life threatening situation and he has to get the doctors’ immediate attention. Ascites ( the swelling caused by the fluid on the abdomen). Breeding, if the patient begins to vomit or to pass stools with the blood.  The patient can have a changed ability in alertness or consciousness like passing out. The person can have a changed mental status like confusion. The patient can suffer shortness in breathing and difficulty in breathing. The person can feel severe weakness, shakiness and muscle tremors or acute edema on legs. If your child has fussiness, lack of urine and stool, problems in breastfeeding and unresponsiveness, you should call for the doctor immediately

    Article publié pour la première fois le 07/08/2011

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    Friable asbestos

    Friable asbestos Friable asbestos products are those that can easily release asbestos fibers. These Friable asbestos are really dangerous. Many a times, the tiny fibers from friable  Asbestos are released and inhaled by our lungs. This can happen when asbestos-containing ore or asbestos products are crushed or broken, and the asbestos becomes friable.

    Friable asbestos can be defined as an material which contains asbestos and can be easily crushed to powder when it is dry. Friable asbestos can be generally seen in tiles, plasters, wall boards etc. Although use of asbestos in these products was banned by 1978 those already in the marketplace remained on the shelves and were used in construction for many years after. They are still commonly found in homes today Many asbestos  manufacturing companies claims that their products are non friable and are nicely embedded in the product and will not release any fibers. But this doesnot happen in reality.

    With day to day tear and wear, the product is deteriorated enough to release  dangerous asbestos   fibers. Sometimes a product that appears non-friable will predictably release fibers when it is installed or removed. For example, asbestos-containing brake pads commonly had to be grinded to fit before being installed, exposing automotive brake mechanics to friable asbestos.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 20/03/2013

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    Amitriptyline Hydrochloride 25mg

    Amitriptyline hydrochloride 25mg is an antidepressant drug that is prescribed only in case of severe and mostly chronic depression. When all other techniques and medicines fail, this drug is used for treatment. The dosage is increased with time depending on how the patient copes with the drug.

    The 25mg of this drug is available in the form of tablets. The drug is given to the patient in three ways: injection, syrups and tablets. The tablet starts from 10mg and then moves on to a heavy dose of 25mg which is also not as high compared to the other amounts of this drug. Hydrochloride 25mg is composed of a tricyclic compound.

    The neurotransmitter reabsorption is blocked by this drug which in turn makes the patient feel better for some time. The neurotransmitters include serotonin and norepinephrine. This drug also has anticholinergic, sedative and vasodilating effects.

    Adults must be given the 25mg drug at bedtime. Initially the dosage may start with 10mg and then later on 25mg is slowly increased everytime so that depression is cured step by step. However, 25mg of this drug is given to regular patients but hospitalized patients are directly given 100mg drug which is slowly increased to 300mg.

    Amitriptyline hydrochloride 25mg can also be used for treatment of phantom limb pain. This drug acts as a pain killer in case of extreme causalgic pain.

    While using amitriptyline hydrochloride 25mg, the patient must be extremely cautious. In case the patient is already having seizures, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular diseases, bipolar disorder, paranoia, schizophrenia, urinary retention, liver dysfunction, closed-angle glaucoma and an increased intraocular pressure. Also, if the patient is old or incase of women, if they are pregnant or breastfeeding, then the drug usage must be curbed.

    The drug must be administered carefully as well. While 25mg of this drug is being used, then the full dosage must be consumed before going to bed. This minimizes orthostatic hypotension. The drug must not be withdrawn immediately if any adverse reactions are noticed. It is worth remembering that the drug is often used together ith psychotherapy or relaxation techniques.

    The side effects of this drug lie between less adverse reactions to acute reactions. The effects on skin include rashes, irritation, flushing and diaphoresis. Other reactions not related with skin are increased apetite, paralytic ileus, leucopenia, constipation, dry mouth, abnormal visual accommodation, high fever, causalgic pains, hypersensitivity reaction, agranulocytosis, difficulty speaking, hypomania, hallucinations, dizziness, suicidal behavior, ideation, extrpyramidal effects and too many other adverse rectons

    The patient must immediately contact the doctor if the symptoms or side effects gain momentum. If these prevail, then the patient must be taught how to deal with it. The dosage must be taken exactly how the doctor has recommended. Overdosage or underdosage could cause the body to become immune to this drug so that the patient will be required to consume another heavy dosage and different amounts. Carelessness will be harmful for the life of the patient. It is essential that before consuming amitriptyline 25mg, the patient has had a detailed discussion with his or her doctor so as to prevent adverse reactions later.



    Article publié pour la première fois le 09/07/2011

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    Symptoms of Heat stroke

    Heat stroke is a form of  hyperthermia in which the body temperature is elevated dramatically.  body temperature is   greater than 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) due to environmental heat exposure with lack of  thermo regulation. The most important measures to prevent heat strokes are to avoid becoming dehydrated and to avoid vigorous physical activities in hot and humid weather.Heat stroke is a medical emergency and can be fatal if not promptly and properly treated.

     Symptoms and Sign of heat stroke

    Symptoms of heat stroke can sometimes similar to those of  heart attack  or other conditions. Sometimes a person experiences symptoms of heat exhaustion before progressing to heat strokes. common symptoms include…

    1) nausea

    2) vomiting

    3) fatigue

    4) weakness

    5) headache

    6) muscle cramps, aches

    7) dizziness

    8) high body temperature

    9) absence of sweating, hot red flushed dry skin

    10) rapid pulse

    11) difficulty in breathing

    12) strange behavior

    13) hallucinations

    14) confusion

    15) agitation

    16) disorientation

    17) seizure

    18) coma

    Infants and children are also at risk. In particular, infants or young children who are unattended in locked cars may suffer heat-related illness quickly, since the indoor temperature of a locked care can rise to dangerous levels even in moderate weather and infants  died of heat stroke

    Prevention of heat stroke

    • Go to shady area, remove clothing, apply cool water to the skin.
    •  person is able to drink liquids, cool water or other cool beverages that do not contain alcohol or caffeine.
    • Monitor body temperature with a thermometer and continue cooling efforts until the body temperature drops to 101 to 102 F (38.3 to 38.8 C).
    • avoid vigorous physical activities in hot and humid weather.
    • Take frequent breaks to hydrate yourself. Wear hats and light-colored, lightweight, loose clothes.
    • Keep cars locked when not in use and never, ever, leave infants or children unattended in a locked car
    •                                                   Treatment of heat stroke
      •                                                                        Treatment involves rapid mechanical cooling.The body temperature must be lowered immediately. The patient should be moved to a cool area (indoors, or at least in the shade) and clothing removed to promote heat loss .   The person is bathed in cool water or a hypothermia vest can be applied. However, wrapping the patient in wet towels or clothes can actually act as insulation and increase the body temperature. Cold compresses to the foot , head, neck, and groin will help in cooling.. Fan or dehumidifying Air conditioners may be used to aid in evaporation of the water

        Immersing a patient into a bathtub of cool (but not cold) water (immersion method) is a recognized method of cooling. This method requires the effort of 4-5 people and the patient should be monitored carefully during the treatment process. Immersion should be avoided for an unconscious patient, the patient’s head must be held above water

        Hydration is of paramount importance in cooling the patient. This is achieved by drinking water (oral rehydration) Intravenous hydration (via a drip) is necessary if the patient is confused, unconscious, or unable to tolerate oral fluids.

        Alcohol rubs will cause further dehydration and impairment of consciousness and should be avoided The patient’s heart rate and breathing should be monitored.


    Article publié pour la première fois le 03/10/2011

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    Physiotherapy help in Lowering Backpain

    How Physiotherapy can help in Lowering Backpain

    Low?r ba?k p??n ?l?gues Am?ricans to th? ?xtent that 80% will suff?r fr?m ?t at som? tim? in their liv??. It is ?ne of the mo?t ?ommon re?sons pe??le vi?it the d?ct?r. F?r man?, th? probl?m ?s mor? than a ???s?ng in??d?nt; th?y n??d ph?si?ther??y.
    Ph?s?oth?r??y ?f different t???s ?an b? u?ed to tre?t l?wer b?ck ???n. Acu?un?tur? ?? fa?t b??om?ng ?n im??rt?nt m?th?d f?r the r?li?f ?f ?u?h pa?n. The doctor h?s the pat?ent lie fac?-down and in?erts th? ?cupun?tur? n??dles a?r??? the ba?k. Th? d?ct?r then fini?h?? the ?r?cedure f?r lower back pain. Pa?n rel?ef after a s?r??? of tre?tm?nts u?ually l?sts months.
    M???age is ?l?o us?d f?r l?w?r back ?a?n. The m?s?ag? used mu?t b? d?ne by ?om?one w?ll-vers?d ?n the treatment ?f lower back p?in. A m?ss?g? don? b? ?n untr??ned ??rson ma? do m?re h?rm th?n go?d.
    Th?s? m?thods ?r? call?d ?a???ve th?r???e?, or mod?l?ties. Th?y ar? don? t? th? ??tient and not b? th? p?t??nt. Ther? are other m?d?l?ti?s th?t ?r? ?omm?nly u?ed. H??t and ?ce ?a?ks ar? ? well-known f?rm of ???s?ve ph?s??th?ra??. Th?y ??n b? u?ed sep?ratel?, ?r th?y ??n be us?d ?lternat?l? by ? p?rson wh? is suffering from ?cut? l?w?r back pain.
    A tr?n?cutan?ou? ?lectrical nerve stimul?tor (TENS) ?an b? used ?? an?ther mod?l?ty for l?w?r b??k ???n. Th? p?t??nt w?ll feel th? ??n?ati?n ?f the ?t?mulat?r in?tead ?f hi? pa?n. If the TENS un?t se?m? t? work well for him, he will be s?nt h?me with ?n? to u?? ?t his ?onven?enc?.
    Ultras?und is ??pe?i?ll? u??ful ?s a ???s?ve th?r??? for ?nyon? w?th ?cut? low?r back ?ain. It delivers h??t d?ep ?nto the mus?l?s of the lower b??k. Th?? n?t only reliev?? pain. It ??n al?? ??e?d heal?ng.
    Ba?k exer??s?? may be ?s??gn?d by a ?hy??other?pi?t. Th?se ex?r?ise? w?ll h?lp with l?wer b??k ???n ?f one d??s th?m ??rre?tly ?nd f??thfull?. The only ex??pt?on is ?f the ba?k ?? ?n ?n ?cute c?ndit??n requiring ?m?rgen?? c?r? ?r surg?r?.
    Th? ex?rc??e? that will h?l? w?th low?r b??k pain the m??t w?ll b? ?ss?gned ?nd supervis?d by a physiotherap?st. The? ma? b? done at home, but ?t will be nec??sary to f?ll?w ?n?tructi?n? ?nd check in frequ?ntly.
    Th??? ?x?r?i??s ?n?lude on?? f?r lower ba?k p?in th?t ?tr?t?h ?r ?xt?nd th? back and ones th?t ?tr?ngthen ?t. One ?s an ex?rci?e wh?re ?ne lies prone and m?ve? a? ?f swimm?ng. This ?rotect? th? back wh?l? giv?ng th? surround?ng muscle? ? w?rk?ut.
    Low?r b??k pain exer?i??s ??lled fl?xi?n exer?i??? str?ngth?n the mid?e?t??n to ?rov?de supp?rt f?r the ba?k. If the l?wer b??k ??in ?s reduced wh?n ?ne sits, th?se exer??se? are ?m?ort?nt. On? ?s ? kn??-to-ch??t ?xerc?s?.
    A?rob?? ?x?r??s? ?uch as walk?ng i? excellent for r?du??ng and ?r?vent?ng low?r b??k ???n ?? w?ll. Ma??ag? ?nd a?u?un?ture ?an b? ?ounted ?n to rel??v? p?in for mo?t p?t?ents. Ex?r??ses can mak? th? b?ck str?nger to both rel??v? and ?revent l?w?r ba?k p??n. An? ?h???oth?r??y th?t ?an hel? r?liev? lower ba?k pa?n will hel? mill?ons ?f ????l?.



    This article has been contributed by Amrita. She is a beauty and health blogger and is currently blogging about topics such as blackhead removal on her blog which she has just started named how to get rid of blackheads remedies.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 30/09/2011

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    Eye stroke

     Eye stroke

    When  an artery or vein within the eye becomes  blocked(also called an occlusion) referred to as an eye stroke. An eye stroke, otherwise known as anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) or a stroke of the optic nerve, is an ocular disease that begins suddenly and occurs without any warning.It will start out in one eye, either the left or the right, and regularly develops in the unaffected eye after a period of time. Just as strokes occur in other parts of the body because blood flow is blocked, our eye also may suffer damage when vital structures such as the retina and  optic nerve are cut off from nutrients and oxygen flowing through the blood. When a blockage  occurs in the blood vessels that supply the front of the optic nerve, an eye stroke occurs results in no nutrient and oxygen supply. Without nutrients and oxygen, nerve tissue is damaged and lost, resulting in vision loss.An eye stroke results in sudden, but painless, vision loss or distorted vision in one eye. The severity of the symptoms depends on where the blockage is located, and how much blood flow is blocked.

    what causes Eye stroke

    Trauma of the head or eye injury, are the main causes which  are associated with AION,other include  glaucoma, giant cell arteritis, lupus, Buerger’s disease, allergies, post-viral vasculitis, post-immunization, smoking, high blood pressure, syphilis, hypertension, migraines, diabetes, atherosclerosis, carotid occlusive disease, sickle cell disease, and acute hypotension.

    Retinal artery occlusion

    Retinal artery occlusion occurs when an artery to the retina is blocked. The retina is the light-sensitive lining of the back of the eye that records what we see. Retinal artery occlusions are typically caused when a blood clot (or embolus) from the heart or carotid artery in the neck travels to the eye.risk factors include

    1)  high blood pressure (hypertension),

    2)artery disease (especially in the carotid),

    3)heart disease,

    4)cholesterol problems, or


    When the retina  is damaged,or   if  it is the central artery that becomes blocked (called a central retinal artery occlusion, or CRAO), the result is usually sudden, total vision loss, though some peripheral vision may be present.. If the blockage occurs in one of the arteries which branch off the central blood vessel (a branch retinal artery occlusion, BRAO), we will  experience a sudden loss of  peripheral vision , with central vision possibly being affected as well. In both cases, the loss of vision is usually painless.complications may include neovascularization of the retina or iris, neovascular glaucoma, or temporal arteritis.

     Retinal Vein Occlusion 

    Retinal Vein Occlusion occurs when a vein within the retina is blocked  due to  blood clot (thrombus), this is called a retinal vein occlusion. It may be either a branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), depending on which blood vessel has the blockage. Retinal vein occlusion is most commonly seen in people with hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis), high blood pressure, or glaucoma. Symptoms include sudden, painless vision loss which can be mild or severe and may include blind spots, distorted vision, or loss of peripheral vision.

    Treatment of Eye stroke

    It is important to  have  our vision should be  checked routinely.E arly detection can prevent  from getting serious vision impairments. Even with prompt treatment, a retinal artery occlusion  results in permanent vision damage. Possible treatment for  Retinal Vein Occlusion  is a laser procedure called pan-retinal laser photocoagulation, This can help to  repair some retinal  damage. During this procedure, a special laser is used to make tiny burns that seal the retina and stop vessels from growing and leaking.  The laser is used to destroy all of the dead areas of retina where blood vessels have been closed. When these areas are treated with the laser, the retina stops manufacturing new blood vessels, and those that are already present tend to decrease or disappear.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 18/10/2011

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    Some Random Mesothelioma facts

    Some Random Mesothelioma facts
    • Mesothelioma which is sometimes referred to as asbestos cancer , is an aggressive cancer caused primarily by the inhalation of asbestos fibers.
    • Mesothelioma takes anywhere from 20 to 50 years to develop, which is why it is more commonly diagnosed in older individuals.
    • Mesothelioma causes for diagnosis in women and children are mainly attributed to secondary exposure to asbestos, as it was not uncommon for men to bring asbestos back into the home on their body or clothing if proper cleaning facilities were not available on site.
    • Mesothelioma is only caused by exposure to asbestos, though cases have been documented in children or other individuals with no asbestos history.
    • Mesothelioma is a difficult cancer to treat.
    • Once a diagnosis of mesothelioma is made, the majority of patients will not live longer than eighteen months.
    • Mesothelioma is a cancer that can affect the lining of the body’s primary organs.
    • Mesothelioma can develop anywhere between 10 to 70 years after the initial exposure.
    • Mesothelioma is sometimes diagnosed by coincidence, before there are any symptoms.
    • Mesothelioma is caused by exposure to asbestos and the inhalation of asbestos particles.
    • Mesothelioma attacks the mesothelium – the lining around the abdominal cavity and the lungs and heart – and is often difficult to treat, depending on where it occurs in the body and how much it has spread when found.
    • Often the effects of asbestos exposure are not seen until decades after the exposure, as mesothelioma can develop 30-50 years after exposure.
    • Mesothelioma development in rats has been demonstrated following intra-pleural inoculation of phosphorylated chrysotile fibers.
    • Mesothelioma has also been linked to radiation therapy treatments to the chest, such as those used to treat breast cancer or lymphoma.
    • Mesothelioma can cause pressure within your chest that can make you feel as if you’re always short of breath.
    • Mesothelioma originates in the mesothelial tissue surrounding the lungs, abdomen or heart.
    • Mesothelioma has a long latency period.
    • Once diagnosed the prognosis is often bleak.
    • Mesothelioma is also more common to Caucasians than in African Americans.
    • Mesothelioma is a cancer that attacks either the pleura (lining in the lungs), the peritoneum (a membrane which lines the abdominal cavity), or the pericardium (a two-layered membrane surrounding the heart).
    • Mesothelioma patients can also learn about some of the cutting edge clinical mesothelioma treatments and medical trials available.
    • Mesothelioma specialists hope that continued research may some day yield a greater survival rate and potential cure.
    • Mesothelioma lawyers specialize in tracing an asbestos disease to a source and finding those culpable for hazardous asbestos exposure.
    • Mesothelioma lawyers can also assist you with information regarding mesothelioma specialists and treatment centers around the country.
    • Mesothelioma diagnoses make up approximately 3 percent of all cancer diagnoses.
    • Mesothelioma destroys its victim and his family emotionally and physically.
    • Mesothelioma is considered very rare, however, 2000 new cases are found each year in the U.S.
    • Mesothelioma can be detected in both men and women at any age.
    • Mesothelioma treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, all of which focus on extending life expectancy and raising quality of life.
    • Mesothelioma is characterized by a system of irregularly patterned tumors that spread through the mesothelium—lining of abdominal cavities.
    • Mesothelioma goes by different names, depending on the membrane in the body where it occurs.
    • Mesothelioma doctors require a health specialization because it is such a rare cancer.
    • Mesothelioma occurs more often in men than in women and risk increases with age, but this disease can appear in either men or women at any age.
    • Mesothelioma is also known as fibrous or multicystic mesothelioma and is categorized as a non-cancerous tumor that inside the pleura, the lining around and in the lungs.
    • Mesothelioma, the deadly disease which has topped news headlines for the last decade, is contracted through exposure to airborne fibers of asbestos.
    • Mesothelioma has become a household word to tens of thousands of U.S.citizens.
    • Mesothelioma patients have a median survival time of 6 – 12 months after presentation .
    • Mesothelioma metastases throughout the internal lining of the organs of the body.
    • Mesothelioma is a hazardous disease caused by the exposure to harmful asbestos fibers.
    • Mesothelioma Lawsuits are not unique: As long as there have been environmental factors with impact on our health as well as a legislative system, people have filed lawsuits if the impact has been of a negative kind.
    • Mesothelioma is a cancer primarily focused on the cells surrounding the lungs.
    • Mesothelioma cancer can develop successful the abdominal (peritoneal) and around the heart (pericardial effusion).
    • Mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis, a chronic advanced lung diseases other than cancer may cause inhalation of asbestos fibers or dust on the long term.
    • Mesothelioma symptoms are progressively slow and take years to surface.
    • Mesothelioma chemotherapy has an edge when it comes to give out the result for mesothelioma patients.
    • Mesothelioma thus becomes a deadly disease when no remedial measures are taken to overcome it and when exposure to asbestos is not controlled.
    • But at present, there are various Mesothelioma law firms which are established in many countries of the world especially in those places where there is high percentage of mesothelioma, a cancer which is the result of high exposure to asbestos.
    • Mesothelioma wrongful death lawsuits are one of the only ways available to hold big business accountable for their blatant neglect.
    • Mesothelioma is sometimes diagnosed by chance, before there are any symptoms.
    • Mesothelioma incidence rates among women in Northeast Minnesota and St.Louis County were the same (0.3) and well below the state rate.
    • Mesothelioma filings increased from 2,001 in 2002 to 2,816 in 2003, with an average of 2,184 during the period 2001 to 2003.
    • Mesothelioma differs from many other cancers because, in addition to gender, age and race, geographic location also affects incidence.
    • Mesothelioma accounted for 1.5% of the 171 900 total lung and bronchus malignancies in the US in 2003 (1, 2 ), and epidemiological studies have established exposure to asbestos fibers as the primary cause (3–5 ).
    • Although malignant mesothelioma remains a relatively uncommon malignancy in the US, it continues to be an important cause of mortality in numerous areas worldwide, e.g., England, Wales, continental Europe, and Australia.
    • Mesothelioma is difficult to diagnose because the symptoms associated with this disease closely resemble more common chest and lung diseases.
    • Mesothelioma cells were found to express mRNA for proopiomelanocortin and its processing enzymes; release -MSH peptide into supernatants; and express melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), the high-af?nity receptor for -MSH.Immunoneutralization of MC1R in the cell lines enhanced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6, and transforming growth factor- .Mesothelioma tissue specimens were ?xed in 10% buffered formalin and were paraf?n-embedded.Tissue sections (3 m) were cut from the paraf?n-embedded blocks.
    • Mesothelioma cells and collagen are identified in tumor fragment spheroids.
    • Mesothelioma has not been found in South African chrysotile miners and millers despite decades of producing about 100,000 tons of the mineral per year.
    • Mesothelioma can be divided into three known forms: pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial.
    • Mesothelioma continues to affect hundreds and even thousands of people each year, particularly in industrious cities such as San Diego and Los Angeles.
    • Mesothelioma symptoms are considered the swelling of the face or through and malfunctioning of other organs or parts of the body.
    • Mesothelioma is found to be in highest incidence rate in Britain, Australia and Belgium.
    • Mesothelioma is very rare in childhood with an estimated 2%–5% of all cases occurring in the first two decades of life.
    • Mesothelioma treatment is considered palliative rather than curative and usually consists of some combination of surgery and chemotherapy.
    • The most commonly used mesothelioma chemotherapy is a combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin.However, this combination is not without its risks.
    • A mesothelioma does not usually spread to the bone, brain, or adrenal glands.
    • A mesothelioma diagnosis usually begins with an accomplished medical history review and a physical enquiry of a patient who suffers from mesothelioma symptoms and signs , including shortness of the breath, chest pains, swollen abdomen, a dry, persistent cough – or in the case of pericardial mesothelioma, erratic behavior in the cardiovascular system.
    • If mesothelioma is in an early stage it can be treated with surgery in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
    • No mesothelioma cases were found among approximately 15,000 subjects of one large factory (Factory E) that started operations in 1902 and used chrysotile solely for producing textiles, insulation and friction materials (Browne and Smither, 1983).
    • No mesothelioma cases had been observed in Russia (Dobrovolsky, 1998).
    • The mesothelioma is a mucous membrane that functions as a lubricant to the organs and enables them to work efficiently and effectively.
    • The mesothelioma swelling may be in one of 2 variants: a benign and a malignant form of the cancer.
    • A mesothelioma attorney must master the many complexities associated with an asbestos exposure case.
    • When mesothelioma occurs in the lungs, it is called pleural mesothelioma ; when it occurs in the heart lining it is called pericardial mesothelioma ; and when it occurs in the abdomen it is called peritoneal mesothelioma .
    • Your mesothelioma lawyer and their team of investigators will work hard to pinpoint the place or places where you were exposed to asbestos and which companies are responsible for those products.
    • These mesothelioma lawsuits often result in millions of dollars for the victims when handled by an experienced lawyer or law firm.
    • A good mesothelioma attorney will choose to bring a mesothelioma or lung cancer claim in a jurisdiction that has favorable laws as they pertain to the client’s unique set of asbestos exposure facts.
    • These mesothelioma remedies are very costly but with a knowledgeable by your side, you ought to not have to be concerned about your medical bills.
    • Unlike mesothelioma, asbestosis usually develops when a person is exposed to high levels of asbestos over a prolonged period of time.
    • Not all mesothelioma patients are good candidates for the radical surgical procedure.
    • Pleural mesothelioma is by far the most common form of the disease, accounting for about 75% of all cases .
    • Not all mesothelioma treatment centers provide the same level of treatment.
    • Pleural mesothelioma is different from lung cancer, which grows inside the lung.
    • Pleural mesothelioma is often thought of as a type of primary lung cancer, but it is not.
    • But once mesothelioma appears, patients typically die within 9 to 12 months.
    • No, most mesothelioma lawyers work on a contingency fee basis.
    • New York mesothelioma lawyers predict there will be a huge influx over the next ten years when the devastation of 911 is taken into account.
    • Though Mesothelioma causes immense pain and suffering to the victim along with short life expectancy, certain treatments have resulted in the successful reduction and removal of the cancerous tumors of Mesothelioma.
    • Malignant mesothelioma can also affect the reproductive organs, the heart, and other major organs.
    • Malignant mesothelioma is far more common in men than in women, at a ratio of 4:1.
    • Abdominal mesothelioma presents with symptoms like weight loss, abdominal swelling and pain, bowel obstruction, blood clotting, anemia and fever.
    • Only 10% of mesothelioma patients survive more than five years after initial diagnosis.
    • Pericardial mesothelioma – This is the rarest form of mesothelioma – only about 5 to 15% of mesothelioma is pericardial mesothelioma.
    • The risk of Mesothelioma increases as the age increases but the disease can make its appearance at any age.
    • Pericardial Mesothelioma patients do not qualify for heart transplants because there is a great risk of cancerous cells being spread throughout the additional mesothelium.
    • Patients of mesothelioma are now utilizing alternative mesothelioma treatment, such as massage therapy as an effective palliative therapy in overall cancer treatment regimens.
    • At autopsy, mesothelioma with infiltration of the lower lobe of the right lung was evident.
    • No cases of mesothelioma were reported in a retrospective mortality cohort study of 1172 chrysotile asbestos product workers (17,600 person-years) in Tianjin, China, from 1972 to 1987 (Cheng and Kong, 1992).
    • In treating Mesothelioma, the anti-cancer drugs are usually given to the patient through intravenous injection (within the vein).
    • Pericardial Mesothelioma may occur in diffuse, multiple and localized forms.
    • Most of the mesothelioma attorneys give a free consultation for your first visit.
    • Treatment of Mesothelioma depends on many factors, including the stage of the cancer, the circulation of the malignant cells, pathology reports determining the nature of the cancer cells and patient’s age and health.
    • Many of these mesothelioma patients have lived years past their expected “date of death” estimate.
    • Although rare, mesothelioma affects veterans from all branches of service: Army , Navy , Air Force and Marines.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 28/07/2013

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    tips for how to get back your ex boyfriend

    when you break up with someone want to get back together and
    winning your ex back after she left you or
    what to text my ex gf if i want her back.
    ways to not want your boyfriend back
    how to talk to my ex boyfriend to accept me back, send free text to slut ex, etc.

    Have you got any depression or anxiety problem? In recent years, more and more suffer from this kind of emotional illnesses because of the current economic context. Many people lose their job overnight and they could not accept this kind of sudden changes. Therefore, they become nervous about their future and they have lost confidence on themselves

    Whatever it takes to get my boyfriend back, how can i get my ex boyfriend back even if he is someone else.

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    . This is the reason why you can find that many people would want to find the necessary information for them to cure anxiety.

    There are many people who are experienced with the treatments of anxiety indeed. Therefore, you can find many books written to guide you through the process of anxiety treatment. But it would not be very easy for you to do so if you follow some useless tips. Therefore, you certainly need to read and understand more about the useful helps that you can take.

    Linden method would be one of the methods that you can consider nowadays. This method has been used by more than 1 million of people in the world and many of these people have succeeded in enjoying a new life and saying goodbye to the problem of anxiety of intense stress.

    It is always easy for you to understand about the cause of anxiety but it is not very easy for you to find comprehensive methods to cure the problem. Therefore, you will easily find that the use of Linden Method might be the first method which can successfully bring anxiety away from you.

    If you are willing to search online, you would find that there are many other methods other than the Linden method. However, the successful rate of curing anxiety with the use of this method would be much higher when compared with the traditional ways or other ways that you might have found.

    The cost for you to follow the Linden method would not be high. You would find that there are a lot of methods which require you to spend a large sum of money but the effect yielded would not be great. Therefore, you would easily find that the use of Linden Method would change the situation and the perception that ‘low cost cannot bring good product’. Yes, this method is affordable to many people so that people can hire the method without delaying the treatment of the anxiety problem.

    In Europe, there are many doctors recommending this method for their clients. Therefore, you would find that this method is well recognized and it would not be difficult for you to find the basic information related to this method if you search online. You will be surprised by the fact that there are many people supporting this product online and they have written many reviews to mention information related to the awesome features of this method and the wonderful effectiveness of the method.

    Therefore, you should not ignore the information search online as it would help you understand more about the method before you really invest in it. You can get rid of anxiety on your own also!

    Article publié pour la première fois le 21/07/2011

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    Benefits of Physical Therapy

    Understanding the Benefits of Physical Therapy

    Physical therapy is usually prescribed for the purpose of promoting a patient’s strength, enable mobility and restoration of impaired body part functionality. Patients who receive usually prescribed physical therapy are those have impairment in their musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, integument and neuromusculoskeletal systems. There are different types of physical therapies, which present different benefits of physical therapy. They include:

    • Orthopedic physical therapy – This is the most common type of physical therapy, which doctors usually prescribe to a patient soon after surgery treatment. The therapy can be administered while still admitted in hospital or upon discharge, receiving the treatment in an outpatient arrangement. This can be on a weekly or monthly basis.
    • Pediatric physical therapy – Pediatric physical therapy is administered to infants and children. Although it can be administered to restore an impaired part of the body, it is also administered to improve a child’s motor skills, balance, cognitive ability and for strength.
    • Geriatric physical therapy – This type of surgery is usually prescribed for the elderly who have to cope with several age-related health problems such as osteoporosis. The therapy is usually intended to lessen or manage any present pain and difficulties associated with old age.
    • Neurological physical therapy – This type of physical therapy is intended to help patients with neurological problems brought about by such disorders or diseases as Parkinson and Alzheimer’s. Stroke and spinal injury patients also receive the therapy.
    • Heat physical therapy – Both patients and healthy individuals can receive heat physical therapy. The therapy leads to improved blood circulation and relaxation of body muscles.

    The benefits of physical therapy are many and are not restricted to patients. Healthy individuals such as athletes also receive physical therapy for different reasons. Some of the benefits of physical therapy include:

    • Increased strength and endurance – While patients with impaired body parts receive physical therapy for the restoration and strengthening of the same, healthy individuals such as athletes also receive the therapy to gain strength and a high degree of endurance.
    • Mobility – This is one of the main benefits of physical therapy. Accident victims have usually regained mobility after receiving therapy, which restores impaired body part(s).
    • Increased coordination – Both patients and healthy individuals do obtain increased coordination and alertness after physical therapy.
    • Decreased stress levels – Receiving physical therapy is one of the best ways for one to relieve stress.
    • Elimination of pain – Physical therapy greatly eliminates or decreases a patient’s pain. This is especially true in patients with joint pain brought about by inflammation of joints.
    • Improved blood circulation – Physical therapy relaxes body muscles, which in effect makes blood supply routes flexible, leading to improved blood circulation in the body.

    The above are just some of the main benefits of physical therapy that patients obtain. Healthy individuals are also encouraged to receive physical therapy as one way of staying healthy. Physical therapy has in fact been established to prevent the occurrence of some diseases and in case of any, managing the same becomes easy.


    Article publié pour la première fois le 06/08/2011

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    Cement asbestos pipe

    How Safe Are Cement Asbestos Pipe

    Asbestos is a material that was widely used in building constructions for many years. However the material was banned in many of the building sectors due to the health risk it presented. The inhalation of asbestos fibers was directly linked to causing respiratory diseases and lung cancer depending on the level of exposure. As a result, the buildings with asbestos in their structure were demolished from the 1970s onwards and the asbestos fibers were safely disposed. However the use of cement asbestos pipe in buildings has not been banned. In 1999, the USA courts clarified that cement asbestos pipe posed no health risk at all to people who were exposed to it. Although both installation of cement asbestos pipe leads to a high initial presence of asbestos fibers in the water, various studies have since disassociated asbestos in water from causing any stomach cancer or tumors.

    The wide avoidance of cement asbestos pipe as a building material is associated with a negative public perception which is related to the harmful asbestos fibers that are found in other places in the building. To clarify matter, asbestos is only harmful when inhaled and the ingestion of asbestos causes no health risks according to many studies that have been conducted in laboratories. The World Health organization also cited that asbestos in drinking water does not cause any health risks in their 1993 study on the Guidelines for Quality Drinking Water.

    While water from cement asbestos pipe does contain asbestos fibers, these fibers cannot be inhaled and as a result they do not pose any heath risk at all. The fibers do not contain the carcinogens that are responsible to gastrointestinal cancer and they can therefore not be related to any cancer of the stomach to the intestines. Asbestos is a commonly appearing mineral so it can be found in many sources of water without the need of cement asbestos pipe. There is no consistent proof linking the ingestion of asbestos to cancer and tumors in the stomach. Cement asbestos pipe is an especially durable piece of construction material due to its resistance and strength qualities. By mixing asbestos fibers with cement, the resulting compound has very high tensile strength that makes it durable than any other building material such as wood or plastic.

    Cement asbestos pipe has a life span of between 50 and 60 years that makes it ideal for constructing the water system in residential or commercial buildings. The pipes are also heat resistant and they can be used in places that are prone to fires such as boilers or near an electric circuit. Also cement asbestos pipe is bio-degradable as it is made from naturally occurring minerals which include asbestos fibers and cement from limestone. This makes them an excellent choice in the construction industry as they offer durability as well as eco-friendly features. All that should be noted is that cement asbestos pipe poses no health risk to a human or animal population and they are very durable and affordable than their iron or plastic counterparts.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 28/07/2013

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    Hair Styles For Long Hair

    There are many styles that you can use if you have long hair. Hereafter are some.

    Traditional prom curls: you have first to wash the hair well. you should then brush and brow dry your hair so that it can look silky and nice. Make sure that you

    gathered the hair well and put them on a side part. Divide the hair so that one of it will be down and the other one will be clipped. Use the water mouse to curl the half of the hair. Let the air to stay for around 2 hours. Take out the curlers and pin the hair into a circle. You can use the curling iron to make soft curls. You have to pin the bottom in the middle of hair and you can decorate the hair with pins. You can also make a low or a high ponytails. If you want a high ponytail, you have to ensure that your hair is totally brushed and smooth. You should brush your hair towards the place where you want to hold the hair. You have to ensure that you hold all the hair together without anyone to part. You can braid the hair if you have made a low ponytail and you can add cute accessories to make it look beautiful. You can also do a teased ponytail for your hair by using bumps one after another. You can also use the voluminous straighten or scrunched style for your hair.



    Article publié pour la première fois le 08/08/2012

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    Pemetrexed mesothelioma

    Pemetrexed mesothelioma
    Mesothelioma patients may benefit from pemetrexed-based treatment.Many researchers are testing pemetrexed-based drugs as a second-line treatment option for mesothelioma relapse.
    Mesothelioma is a rare cancer of lung lining and lining of other abdominal cavities. It is caused due to exposure to asbestos fibers. There are about 2000-3000 reported cases in USA only for Mesothelioma. There are many unreported cases of Mesothelioma in many developing countries.
    Researchers have found that pemetrexed drugs benefited mesothelioma patients.
    Few people were given pemetrexed-based drugs alone and few were given combination of pemetrexed-based and the current standard platinum-based drugs as part of research and treatment and almost half of the patients tested showed shrunken tumors or tumors that had stopped growing.Patients who responded well to pemetrexed-based drugs as a first-line treatment benefited from the same type second-line treatments.
    Pemetrexed is a novel antifolate, a class of drugs that targets the folic acid metabolic pathway, which effects availability of certain B complex vitamins.
    There are some side effects also which includes blood cell abnormalities, nausea and diarrhea
    Researchers have reported results showing that patients on a new chemotherapy drug regimen live longer and have less pain than those on an older drug.
    Pemetrexed is a novel antifolate, a class of drugs that targets the folic acid metabolic pathway, which effects availability of certain B complex vitamins.
    The result showed that tumors shrank  in 41 percent of patients onpemetrexed in combination with a more commonly used chemotherapy agent called cisplatin.
    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is associated with a history of asbestos exposure in about 70 to 80 percent of all cases and there is no approved or very effective chemotherapy for the disease.
    Under the current expanded access program, Alimta may be available free to patients who qualify. Additionally, patients with mesothelioma may be entitled to large settlements against employers or asbestos makers.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 17/03/2013

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    Asbestos waste disposal sites

    Asbestos waste disposal sites
    These are the dedicated locations for disposal of asbestos.Homeowners and asbestos contractors must dispose of waste asbestos materials properly. This is considered as solid waste.Solid waste regulations talks about  packaging of asbestos for dis-posal and disposal criteria for landfills. It is required for landfill opertaors to handle asbestos  waste in specific manner in asbestos waste disposal sites.
    Non-friable asbestos is accepted for disposal by many land-fills as long as the landfill operator is contacted for approval prior to disposal.  Friable asbestos can be disposed to dedicated and authrozied asbestos waste disposal sites
    Some points to note while planning asbestos waste disposal :
    • Asbestos should be handled by a certified asbestos abatement contractor.
    • Slightly damaged or loose asbestos can be re-wrapped rather than removed.
    • Avoid dusting, sweeping or vacuuming particles suspected of containing asbestos.
    • Asbestos containing materials should never be disposed of in a combustion facility or compacted because fibers may be released to the surrounding area.
    Regulations for asbestos disposal sites:
    There are many state and federal regulations for asbestos disposal sites:
    • asbestos waste disposal sites should be properly covered
    • asbestos waste disposal sites should be properly maintained
    • Only licensed/qualified persons should work in site.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 22/07/2013

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    Asbestos health hazards

    Asbestos health hazards
    Exposure to asbestos increases your risk of developing lung disease. That risk is made worse by smoking.
    More the exposure more are the chances for developing harmful effects.
    Continuous exposure to friable asbestos results in repository related diseases.
    Major health hazards:
    Asbestosis — Asbestosis is a serious, progressive, long-term non-cancer disease of the lungs.This is caused due to inhaling asbestos fibers  that causes lung tissues to scar. The scarring makes it hard for oxygen to get into the blood.
    Lung Cancer — Lung cancer causes the largest number of deaths related to asbestos exposure. People who work in the mining, milling, manufacturing of asbestos, and those who use asbestos and its products are more likely to develop lung cancer than the general population.
    Mesothelioma — Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that is found in the thin lining (membrane) of the lung, chest, abdomen, and heart and almost all cases are linked to exposure to asbestos.This disease takes many years to show up.
    Exposure to asbestos:
    People can be exposed to asbestos in their workplace, their communities, or their homes. Asbestos has been classified as a known human carcinogen
    Risk Factors for asbestos health hazards:
    • Concentration of asbestos fibers
    • Exposure time period
    • Frequency of that time period asbestos was exposed
    • Size, shape and chemical makeup of asbestos fibers
    Reduce the hazards of asbestos:
    • Employers should provide training and awareness of operations where there is any potential of exposure to asbestos.
    • Employers should force workers to have all kinds of protective and safety wearings and equipments.
    • Airborne levels of asbestos are never to exceed legal worker exposure limits.
    • Medical monitoring of workers is also required when legal limits and exposure times are exceeded.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 22/07/2013

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    Basilar artery stroke

      Basilar artery stroke

    Basilar artery is the most important artery in the posterior circulation. It is formed at the pontomedullary junction by the combination of both vertebral arteries. It lies on the ventral

    surface of the pons and, along  its course,  it gives off its median, paramedian, short, and long circumferential branches.The branch of the basilar artery with the larger circumference is the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. It normally arises at the junction of the proximal and middle thirds of the basilar artery and supplies the lateral pontine tegmentum, brachium pontis or middle cerebellar peduncle, flocculus, and a small part of the anterior cerebellum. The internal auditory artery usually arises from the anterior inferior cerebellar artery; however, it may also arise as a direct branch of the basilar artery.

    The terminal branch of the basilar artery is the posterior cerebral artery (PCA);  which mainly  supplies the midbrain, the thalamus, and the medial aspect of the temporal and occipital lobes. Proximal to its bifurcation into the terminal branches (ie, PCA), the basilar artery gives off the superior cerebellar arteries that supply the lateral aspect of the pons and midbrain and the superior surface of the cerebellum. The clinical manifestations depend on the location of the occlusion, the extent of thrombus, and the collateral flow. If the proximal segment of the basilar artery is occluded and the occlusion resulted from a slowly progressive stenosis, collateralization occurs within the cerebellum into the circumferential branches of the basilar artery. In  most cases of distal (top of the basilar) or proximal (vertebrobasilar junction) occlusions which  are due to embolism either from a cardiac or an arterial source. On the other hand, midbasilar artery occlusion is typically the result of atherothrombosis. Arterial dissections are very rare and usually involve the vertebral artery and occasionally extend to the basilar artery .

    •     Clinical presentation 
      • An abnormal level of consciousness and motor signs, such as hemiparesis or quadriparesis (usually asymmetric), are seen
      • Bulbar and pseudobulbar signs are the most common findings  .
      • Pupillary abnormalities, oculomotor signs, and pseudobulbar manifestations (ie, facial weakness, dysphonia, dysarthria, dysphagia) are common
                                                . The syndromes more commonly associated with basilar artery occlusion are:
        • Locked-in syndrome: It is caused by infarction of the basis pontis secondary to occlusive disease of the proximal and middle segments of the basilar artery, which leads to quadriplegia. Because the tegmentum of the pons is spared, the patient has a spared level of consciousness, preserved vertical eye movements, and blinking.
            • Top-of-the-basilar syndrome:  it is the manifestation of upper brainstem and diencephalic ischemia  which is caused by occlusion of the l basilar artery, usually by an embolus. Patients present with changes in the level of consciousness.  visual symptoms such as hallucinations and/or blindness is common. Third nerve palsy and pupillary abnormalities are also frequent. Motor abnormalities include abnormal movements or posturing.
          • Oculomotor signs are common. They usually reflect involvement of the vertical gaze center in the midbrain or the abducens nucleus, the horizontal gaze center located in the paramedian reticular formation contiguous to the abducens nucleus, and/or the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Lesions to these structures result in the following:

            • Ipsilateral abducens palsy
            • Ipsilateral conjugate gaze palsy
              • Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
              • One-and-a-half syndrome caused by a lesion simultaneously affecting the paramedian reticular formation and the medial longitudinal fasciculus, resulting in ipsilateral conjugate gaze palsy and internuclear ophthalmoplegia
              • Ocular bobbing, which localizes the lesion to the pons: This is characterized by a brisk downward movement of the eyeball with a subsequent return to the primary position.
              • Skew deviation.
                                                                                Other reported signs of pontine ischemia include limb shaking, ataxia (usually associated with mild hemiparesis), facial weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia, and hearing loss.
                             Medical care
                                                Patients with unstable  neurological symptoms, decreased level of consciousness, active cardiac or respiratory  conditions, hemodynamic instability, or a need for interventional therapies (eg, thrombolysis) must be admitted to a neurological intensive care unit.Every effort should be made to maintain a normal intravascular volume by administering isotonic solutions.. Dobutamine should be used with caution and with close monitoring of the cardiac index because it can often cause vasodilatation and hypotension.  Management of the airway is  importantl.Endotracheal intubation is recommended in most patients to keep their airway clear while maintaining normal ventilation. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only pharmaceutical agent used  for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke within the first 3 hours of onset. . In some cases Angioplasty with or without stent placement has been performed to treat patients with atherosclerotic stenosis or to mechanically dislodge thrombi. The combination of intravenous thrombolysis with consecutive on-demand endovascular mechanical thrombectomy may allow for early treatment initiation with high recanalization.Recanalization of the basilar artery is key to the successful treatment of basilar artery thrombosis and for improving its prognosis.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 22/10/2011

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    Satellite Direct Software

    Since the development of information technology is more and more rapid in recent decades, there are a lot of programs which are designed for people to enjoy various services through the internet. It would not be difficult for them to find the information such as satellite direct software in the market in recent years.

    Whenever you try to find information related to satellite direct software, you probably would find that there are many people supporting this kind of software. When you want to use these programs to enjoy the television or other entertainments, you should try to understand how to select the programs well so that you can enjoy using them.

    First of all, you need to select the right provider of the programs. Some of the programs or software in the market would not be very useful and it is difficult for you to watch many channels when you use those programs or software. Therefore, you need to search online for a list of reliable programs for satellite TV software. Satellite direct software would be one of the reliable programs that you can choose because it is recognized by many users and it uses the advanced technology to process the signals received so as to generate the programs that you really love watching.

    You will find that satellite direct software is poplar and there are many companies or individuals which want to simulate the success of it. Therefore, you can find that there are many programs which claim that you can watch television programs overseas after paying for the programs. But they might not be the reliable ones. Therefore, only the satellite direct software should be trusted indeed.

    If you are interested in enjoying the services like satellite direct software, you should try to ask the questions in your mind and purchase after you have resolved all the questions. Some people complain about the quality of the software because they did not understand how the software works. Therefore, they would find that there is a gap between their expectation and the reality and they would make the complaint. But this is clearly not something responsible and you should try to avoid doing this because you are wasting your time. Therefore, you are advised to ask the customer support team the questions that you have so that you can have a better understanding while you purchase the services.

    When you have any problems related to the operation of the satellite direct software, you should also try to find the help from the customer support team. There are many services that you can use in order to watch the television programs well. Usually, people fail in watching the programs because they cannot identify the right set of configurations. Therefore, the best thing that they can do would be to look for the right configurations through the help from the customer or technical support team.

    As long as you try to find the information about satellite direct software and learn before you hire the services, you would not be disappointed and you can use it to have wonderful entertainment.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 21/07/2011

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    Thrombotic Stroke

         Thrombotic Stroke

                                      stroke  which is mainly caused by the interruption of blood flow to a part of the brain due to the  formation of a blood clot along the lumen of an artery. These thrombi usually disturb the blood supply through the arteries into the brain , causing damage. These are the common form of lacunar strokes. About half to two-thirds of all strokes are thrombotic strokes.

    In  such type of  stroke, a blood clot (thrombus) forms inside one of the brain’s arteries. The clot blocks blood flow to a part of the brain. This causes brain cells in that area to stop functioning and die quickly.The blood clot that triggers a thrombotic stroke usually forms inside an artery that already has been narrowed by atherosclerosis. This is a condition in which fatty deposits (plaques) build up inside blood vessels.

    Thrombotic strokes can affect both large as well as small arteries of the brain. when the clot affects the larger arteries of the brain and intrupt blood flow to the greater portion of it , results in greater disability and  when a thrombotic stroke occurs in a small artery, the artery is usually one that is deep within the brain. This stroke is more specifically named a lacunar stroke. Lacunar strokes often have minimal symptoms because only a small part of the brain is affected.

    Another type is embolic stroke which is also due to formation of blood clot somewhere in the body other than brain. in this the thrombi(blood clot) travels through the blood stream to the brain artery.. this blood clot usually comes from the heart


    The  cause of thrombotic stroke is migraine headache. In  severe cases, a migraine headache can cause a brain artery to go into spasm for a long time. And allows to form blood clot


    Certain risk factors play an important role these are..

    • Family history of stroke
    • Diabeties
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • High cholesterol
    • Smoking



    Article publié pour la première fois le 29/09/2011

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    Basal ganglia stroke

     Basal ganglia stroke

    basal ganglia  is generally a ganglion which  is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system.It is a collection of nuclei deep to the white matter of cerebral cortex. It includes:

    1) caudate,


     3)nucleus accumbens,

      4)globus pallidus,

      5)substantia nigra,

      6)subthalamic nucleus,

    This region has a supply of blood that  can easily damage or blocked. When the supply of blood to any of   region in the  brain is disturbed, the individual will undergo a stroke. When a stroke occurs because of lack of blood flow in the basal ganglia it is referred as basal ganglia stroke . Strokes that damage the basal ganglia can cause a range of abnormalities in body movement.The basal ganglia mainly control coordination of movement, and when these nerve centers become damaged, the body loses its ability to coordinate. This disorder is called ataxia. If the basal ganglia become damaged by a stroke, then the muscles of face, mouth, and throat  also weaken and function incorrectly.

    signs and symptoms of basal ganglia stroke

    When a stroke occurs because of lack of blood flow in the basal ganglia, it leads to symptoms. The typical symptoms for a stroke in this area include:

    1) Changes in body movement – when stroke occurs in the basal ganglia , a variety of anomalies in movement of the body include–

    Stiff  and Rigid muscles

    Loss of movement


    Ataxia(loss of ability to coordinate)

    Difficulty in swallowing

    Difficulty in smiling or speaking

    2) Cognitive impairment- Patients having  stroke affecting the basal ganglia will experience a decrease in cognitive functionSome of the functions affected by a stroke in the basal ganglia include

    difficulty in making decisions

    memory disturbances,

    language problem,

    difficulty in attention.

    These symptoms improve over time, but rarely return to normal levels

    3) Unconsciousness, nausea, vomiting and headache- A hemorrhagic stroke in the basal ganglia will result in headache, nausea and vomiting.  when bleeding  occurs in the caudate nucleus  it can spread to other areas of the brain. As a result  the  blood irritates the nerves and tissues of the brain and can lead to pain and vomiting. Furthermore, the increased pressure caused by the excess blood can lead to parts of the brain shutting down. Once the brain begins to shut down, the patient can lose consciousness and  enters into the state of   coma.

    4) Personality changes- A basal ganglia stroke can lead to personality changes,  like

    • Difficulty in  understanding
    • Frustration
    • Anxious
    • Lack of motivation
    • Loss of interest in any activities
    • Crying for no reason
    • Laugh for no reason
    • Depression
    • Anger

    Article publié pour la première fois le 11/10/2011

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    Whiplash Compensation

    Whiplash is extremely common in horse racing and on-road accidents. Whiplash injuries are most common in UK. Most part of the accident insurance goes towards paying for whiplash compensations. Many masterminds and criminals take advantage of such type of compensation plans. They simply set up fake accidents and bring all fake witnesses to get their compensation done.

    This is one of the major factors as to why government is being strict towards handing out those compensations. A conclusive and effective evidence of the accident and the related injury has to be produced, before the government hands over the compensations to you. So a doctor’s report is of much importance when it comes to handing over the compensation, as well as a genuine proof is a must to get your compensation.

    This is the exact reason as to why whiplash compensation companies are in such a high demand. They know how to handle each and every such situation and have an effective approach which can get you huge sums of benefits in no time.

    Victims of whiplash might not be completely aware of the fact that they have been affected by such an injury, and might not get the benefits of compensations. Hence it is always recommended to approach or consult your nearest doctors when you get some kind of neck pain or other such whiplash related symptoms. Whereas some other victims of whiplash might not be aware of such compensations and benefits they are entitled to. If you are unable to work due to whiplash injury then apply for compensation. It is the job of the compensation company to provide you with those benefits and find out the maximum number of heads than an applicant can be entitled to.

    Many solicitors are taking advantage of their huge demand and have raised their fees, and even whiplash compensation companies have done the same thing. These fees are unnecessary as the government looks after all their legal expenses when the claim is put into its place, so always be warned of such type of cheats and make sure to avoid them and raise questions when they demand the fees. Never fall for such cheats.

    Whiplash companies and other solicitors related to giving compensations to victims of whiplash, give you a contract to sign when you apply for the first time. They might also try to trap you into one such case where you might have to pay huge fees unnecessarily. Never fall for such traps, always make an effort to go through each and every document placed before you. Have a good look at the terms and conditions before you sign one such compensation contract. The main thing to look out for is to see to that you don’t have to pay a single buck from your own pocket if the compensation is being rejected.

    A genuine whiplash compensation company who are true to their clients always has the following features.

    . 1. The company makes sure that the victim is properly compensated for all expenses incurred because of their treatment, loss of work time and damage that has occurred due to accidents.

    2. The company must not demand any extra fees or charges other than the money they get legally through the government to cover all these costs.

    Look for these features at the beginning and then go and choose the one you feel is best for you.

    Article publié pour la première fois le 07/08/2012

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